Imagine a situation: you purchased a summer cottage where the previous owners have already cultivated fruit and berry wealth. Isn't it wonderful? True, currants and gooseberries look like that for 15-20 years, they are affected by diseases and pests, and they give little fruit.
And yet, I want to save those old currant or gooseberry varieties, because today it is difficult to find such. In this situation, only one way is possible - the resuscitation of the bushes. In this article, we will more touch on the topic of rejuvenating the currant berry, although the same methods are suitable for both gooseberries and honeysuckle.
If you do not carry out periodic pruning, currants already after 6-7 years significantly reduce yields, and their ability to fight diseases and pests also decreases. The ideal of a currant bush is about twenty branches of different ages, including 3-4 last year's shoots. The largest number of fruit buds is formed on the stems for 2-4 years, which is why many gardeners completely remove branches that are more than four years old.
Anti-aging pruning aims to form a shrub that is closest to the ideal, so that in the future it is easy to inhibit thickening and aging.
Currant rejuvenation in several stages
Six to eight-year-old plants are advised to rejuvenate gradually, spending about three years on it. Such pruning will make it possible to collect, albeit low, but still harvest, and at the same time remove old branches.
In the fall of each next year, you need to get rid of a third of the old bush. It will be optimal to cut the shoots to the very ground, so that there are no long stumps that become breeding grounds for pests. It is better to process the sections with ash. The next year, in parallel with the rejuvenating procedure, you can already carry out planned pruning, which is needed for the development of a young bush.
Currant rejuvenation by radical pruning
This rejuvenating method involves cutting the bush completely, "to zero". With its help, you can give a second life even to very inferior "oldies" - plants aged 8-15 years.
In the spring, as soon as the snow melts, or at the end of autumn, you need to remove all the shoots almost to the soil surface. If small, three to four centimeter stumps remain, it's not scary. During autumn pruning, it is advisable to mulch the ground around the plant and the cuts themselves with straw or the remaining tops. This is necessary so that the roots of the currant do not freeze. When a radical operation is performed in the spring, it is recommended to spill the soil with a solution of "Fitosporin", and after a few weeks feed it with mullein infusion (we dilute one in ten) or herbal fertilizer. Such procedures, carried out two or three more times per season, will perfectly saturate the currants with nutrients.
Hibernating basal buds will receive an impetus for development and discard young stems. Of these, you need to choose the 5-7 strongest ones, cut out all the others - that is, the actions are the same as when forming a young bush from a seedling. Two years after radical pruning, the plant will delight you with a decent harvest.
Annual rejuvenation of currants
Suddenly, the currant berry at your dacha is very large, or the technology of planned pruning seems overly complicated to you, adopt this method of annual rejuvenation of your plants.
Using your imagination, divide the bush into four, and completely remove the fourth of the shoots every spring or fall. This is how you annually free the plant from stems that are more than four years old. The currant bush will always be young, and the berries will be large and numerous.
In the end, it should be noted that currant rejuvenation is possible without pruning. Just take cuttings from the strongest and healthiest stems, root, and then plant in a new place. Uproot the old bush and forget about it.
Currant pruning. Garden World site
When and how to properly trim currants
Currant pruning is an agrotechnical technique that is necessary for the proper development of the fruit shrub.
Understanding the goals, rules and subtleties of currant pruning, even novice gardeners will regularly get good yields.
Spring pruning of black currant
Pruning in spring is carried out without waiting for the snow to melt, since the buds bloom very early. The work with a pruner begins immediately after planting the seedling in a permanent place. Each shoot is cut, leaving three buds. With good care in the first year, the young bush develops a strong root system and grows several shoots. In the second year, they are shortened so that they branch better. The formation of black currants by pruning continues until the age of five. For this, 2-3 of the strongest zero shoots are left annually and monitored for high-quality branching, pinching the tops if necessary. More developed branches are cut off weaker, and less - cut by half. After the age of five, all that remains is to maintain the plant with annual rejuvenating pruning. Old branches to be removed are easy to notice - they give minimal apical growth.
Any pruning scheme includes timely disposal of weak, broken branches, overlapping and thickening shoots. Old, dry branches are also cut as close to the base as possible so as not to leave stumps. Sometimes a lichen appears on the plants - this is evidence of trouble, and it is better to remove such branches. If the back door is visible on the cut, this is a sign of glass penetration. Such a branch is removed to healthy wood (and most often to the base) and burned. It is especially important to keep the middle of the bush free so that it is exposed to the sun's rays and well ventilated.
Pruning young currants consists mainly in culling weak and excess branches and shortening the rest. Well-developed annual shoots are also cut off - only the tops, to improve branching. They are removed, paying attention to where the last bud is looking - it should be directed outward of the bush. The cut is carried out obliquely, about half a centimeter above the kidney.
Red currant pruning has some peculiarities. This species is less prone to thickening, more branches are allowed in the bush, up to 25 pieces. The pinching of the tops is not done, since the laying of flower buds occurs closer to the end of the shoots.
Pruning currant bushes at different periods of life and seasons
Currant is a rather sprawling bush that, over several years, without proper attention, quickly loses its shape and ability to bear fruit effectively. The branches grow so much that the shoots inside become inaccessible to the sun.
As a result of pruning, there should be 15 to 20 branches up to 6 years old. Weak, redundant young shoots and old branches that have already become are cut out.
But this does not mean that pruning only affects bushes six years old and older. The formation of all types of currants begins from the first year, literally from the moment of planting.
Pruning currant seedlings
To properly cut the seedling, cut off the tops of the existing shoots on the plant at the height of two or three buds. More than three or four shoots should not be left in order for the buds to give a strong healthy growth during the growing season.
The main amount of ovary on black currant is formed on branches of three or four years old, namely on short annual pods.
The life of these branches does not last long; after one or two harvests, they die off. And in skeletal branches older than 5-6 years, fruiting dies out, and the shoots gradually dry out from the top to the root.
In red and white currants, fruit buds are concentrated on shortened shoots, and the ringlets are quite strong, after harvesting they do not dry out for several years and are located on the border of the growth of different years. The greatest harvest should be expected from the branches for 4–6 years. The life of the bushes as a whole in this culture is longer than that of the black currant.
It is important to remember that using formative, sanitary and rejuvenating pruning, you can get a stable crop of currants for many years and not be afraid of the appearance of traces of diseases dangerous for this crop on the bushes.
When and how to do it
The neglected planting of currants needs to be saved. The rejuvenating treatment can be done in spring or autumn.
You can start the rejuvenating procedure in early spring, before the leaves have blossomed.
When pruning, it should be remembered that the main crop of black currant ripens on shoots 2 - 3 years old. Therefore, if you have only one currant bush, leave several branches of this age in addition to the young shoots. Thus, you can harvest a little, and continue rejuvenation the next year, when the young shoots bear fruit.
Simultaneously with the rejuvenation of black currants, sanitary pruning is also carried out, which contributes to the rapid growth of young shoots
Spring anti-aging pruning
Rejuvenating pruning in spring can be combined with sanitary pruning.
- When the soil warms up to 5 ° C, choose the fairest day and get started.
- Remove dry, broken, or diseased branches first.
- Cut branches that are not growing properly (inside the bush), thickening the bush and interfering with young shoots.
With the help of a special tool, it is easy to cut out old branches that grow inside the bush
You can find out the age of a branch by the bark. In old branches, it is dark, almost black. In young ones, it is light gray-brown. In addition, old branches are often covered with lichen. You can also calculate the age of a branch based on the growth rate. On the branches of the first and third years, the growth is from 30 to 50 cm. By the age of five, the process decays. At the ends of old branches, the growth will be only 5 cm. Fruit buds on them are very few, and sometimes not at all.
The age of currant branches can be calculated by the growth rate
Pruning during this period is carried out after the foliage has fallen. It is important to have time to complete the procedure before the onset of frost.
The autumn rejuvenation procedure is carried out according to the same rules as the spring one.
This diagram clearly shows the scheme of black currant rejuvenation.
Anti-aging pruning rules
For anti-aging pruning to succeed, follow these guidelines:
- carry out work only on time
- use sharpened and disinfected garden tools for the operation
- after removing the branch, try not to leave stumps. If in the center of the bush it is not possible to cut a branch flush with the ground, then the stump should not be higher than 2 cm from the soil surface
Try not to leave hemp after trimming
After rejuvenating pruning, you should not wait for a large harvest. The plant should grow strong and grow zero shoots that will harvest next year. Therefore, in order not to be left without a crop, you can first rejuvenate one bush, and the next year work with another.
It is advisable to rejuvenate black currant bushes no more than 3 times. When the plant's root system begins to die off, and this happens at the age of 25 or 30, rejuvenation will no longer help.
Black currants are not afraid of strong pruning, on the contrary, after it, the update mechanism starts. If the rejuvenation is done correctly, then in a year the old bush will compete with young plants in terms of the quantity and quality of the harvest.
How to grow a currant bush
You can talk for hours about how much usefulness currant berries contain inside them. One has only to look at 3-liter jars with this truly magical jam, as well as frozen berries stored in the freezer, to realize that currants are very popular among most of our gardeners.
Well, what kind of gardener, please tell me, can refuse the opportunity to harvest even more berries in the next summer season?
For this, it is necessary to know the little tricks of growing currants, which will help us increase its yield.
How to grow currants
It would seem that everything is very simple. We purchased seedlings, choosing the most prolific varieties, brought them to the site, where they prepared the soil in advance for planting them, planted currants, and everything that will happen in the future can be called in one word its care.
Currant, let's say, is not a very whimsical plant. The most important thing is to take care of it correctly. And it is necessary to start this entire process immediately after planting.
Rules for growing and caring for currants
The main thing on the currant bush is the berries, but more on that later. In the meantime, let's talk about the root system of the currant bush, which is very sensitive to different types of loosening and digging the soil.
In order not to disturb the roots of the currant, never, under any circumstances, dig the ground under the bush, otherwise you risk generally remaining in the future without a fruitful bush.
The loosening itself must be carried out carefully, to a depth of less than eight cm. Since the root system of the currant bush is close enough to the surface of the earth, in the fall it must be fed with rotted humus, and then covered with mulch.
- With the arrival of spring, when the snow has already melted, and the new season can be considered to have begun, carefully scoop up the old mulch, and then dispose of it over the fire.
Cover the soil around the trunk itself with humus or fresh compost soil. This will be a good feeding for the roots, as well as reliable protection against overheating, which is exactly what currants do not like very much.
- So that the cut grass does not take all the juices from the ground, but, as it is clear, it draws out the necessary nitrogen, pour it with a substance from water and urea (this is done as follows: one tablespoon of urea is taken for 10 liters of water).
The grass under the bush will rapidly grow decrepit, so every week you need to put a new layer of fresh grass. How long to continue this procedure? Until about the end of September. The very process of feeding with urea must be carried out only until mid-June, and then change the urea for ash, which will help our shoots to ripen early.
- When the time comes for harvesting currant berries, there is no need to postpone this process until the next weekend, if the berries are already filled with juice, and the branches are still breaking under the weight and tilting to the ground.
Better to sacrifice a couple of hours, but collect the collection, than later to tear the hair on your head, because the birds have pecked all your berries.
- Another fundamental point in the cultivation of our currants is the pruning and formation of the bush itself. Aby, like a currant bush, it cannot grow either.
Well, in theory it can, in principle, but it can negatively affect a good harvest. Pruning should be done only once a year: either in the spring before the buds bloom or in the fall.
Fundamentally: It is necessary to remove branches carefully and carefully, without damaging the branches of the last year, because they specifically form the main, more abundant collection.
one . All lower branches are cut to avoid fungal damage to the bush.
2. It is necessary to remove all old and unhealthy branches of their usefulness, but they will take away the strength from the bush.
3. Do not forget to line the middle of the bush, removing thickening shoots and all crooked branches.
Each variety, be it snow-white, dark or reddish currants, each of them has its own fad, aspects of care and cultivation. If you follow each of them exactly, you can achieve a wonderful harvest every year.
Therefore, it is necessary to be attentive to these same shrubs, not to forget about caring for them, then there will always be so many so necessary and tasty berries that at least open your own currant shop.
Schemes and rules for pruning black currants by year, differences from pruning red and white currants
Currant pruning should be done regularly, i.e. remove obsolete, dried out and painful branches in a timely manner, so that new, more fruitful ones grow to replace them.
Timely and regularly forming a currant bush, you can get bountiful harvests:
- from black currant - within 25 years
- from red currants - within - 20 years.
When is it better and how to form black currants, what are the differences in the methods of cutting black and red currants - this is the topic of our today's story.
Black currant pruning
Black currant is a spreading bush with many branches of different ages. A well-formed bush usually has up to 25 branches of different ages, not exceeding 6 years. On branches over 6 years old, almost no fruit is formed, therefore it is pointless to leave such shoots in the bush. And the formation of a bush should begin right from the moment of planting.
Skeletal branches and zero currant shoots
- Shoots of order zero - new strong shoots growing from buds located on underground stem parts. They are also called renewal shoots. In the year of regrowth, they usually do not have branches and are distinguished by a light color of the bark.
- Root (zero) branchesdeveloped from zero-order shoots.
- Spinning branches, which developed from topside shoots growing on perennial wood of old skeletal branches.
- Branches of the first, second, third, etc. branching orders... Part of the buds on the basal or top branch grows, forming branchesfirst order branchingon which branches of the second order grow, etc.
- Fruit twigs - short formations that bear the harvest. In black currant, fruit branches die off after 1 - 2 fruiting ..
Pruning blackcurrant seedlings when planting
How to prune black currants in the first year
- When planting at a currant seedling each shoot should be cut, leaving only 2 - 3 buds.
- If you don't, then in the spring from long uncircumcised branches numerous, but weak and unproductive shoots will grow, and so, by the end of the first year of life, a young bush forms 5-6 new shoots.
Pruning blackcurrant seedlings in the second year
In the second year of life by the currant bush pruned (zero) shoots, leaving only 3-5 of the strongest and healthiest, which will become the first skeletal branches of the emerging bush. And without fail we remove all weak, underdeveloped, shading other shoots.
Blackcurrant pruning scheme for the second year
To strengthen the tillering of the left branches as the skeleton of the future bush, we shorten the tops by 2 buds.
Blackcurrant pruning of the third and fourth year
How to prune black currants 3-4 years
- In the third yearfrom the newly emerged zero shoots leave 3-4 of the strongest and healthiest, all the rest are to be removed, especially from the middle of the bush, to prevent "thickening" of the bush. All diseased, broken, dried branches are also removed.
- The tops of last year's twigs are pinched... Examining the bush, we see that it now consists of branches of different ages: several two-year and several annual shoots.
- on the shoots of the second and third years, we leave 3-4 buds on each branch.
By this time, the formative pruning is finished, because the black currant bush is considered fully formed.
Pruning black currants in the fifth-sixth and all subsequent years
Pruning old branches from black currants
Rejuvenation of the bush, removal of the oldest branches:
- the oldest branches at the age of 5-6 years are cut off completely, cutting out at the very ground
- remove all dry, sick, frozen over the winter, broken, lying on the ground, interfering with each other branches
- remove excess zero shoots, leaving 4-6 of the most powerful and correctly located
- the tops of the branches of the last year are pinched
- in the branches of the second, third and fourth years, each branch is shortened, leaving 2-4 buds
- 3-5 of the most promising shoots of the current year are left, and all the rest are removed.
Features of pruning red and white currants
The formation of the crown of red and white currants has some difference from pruning black currants. The main discrepancy is that pruning of red and white currants is possible in the summer, immediately after the fruiting period.
The pruning scheme for red and white currants is the same as for black, the only difference is that 2-3 year old shoots are not cut off and last year's shoots are not even shortened.
Thus, the main actions for the formation of the crown of red and white currants are to remove:
- all old branches (over 7-8 years old)
- excessive zero shoots
- all painful, broken, frozen branches.
Strong, healthy and productive shoots up to 7-8 years old, it is recommended not to completely remove, but only to shorten them to the first strong lateral shoot.
A well-formed bush of red and white currants usually has up to 25 branches of different ages, not exceeding 7-8 years. The main thing is to prevent thickening of the crown and timely carry out a sanitary cut, getting rid of diseased shoots.