Garlic: useful properties, culture features
An ode to garlic. Part one
Another winter with a flu epidemic once again made us think about using natural remedies, among which garlic is in one of the first places.
Garlic - one of the most ancient plants that people began to use to their advantage. Due to its specific features, due to its strong phytoncides, garlic is currently used in the national economy as widely as no other plant.
It is eaten fresh, it is used in cooking, for the preparation of products for future use - in pickles and marinades, in the canning and meat processing industries. Garlic oil and dry garlic powder are prepared from fresh garlic. Its bulbs are used as raw materials in the pharmaceutical industry for the manufacture of about ten types of drugs; garlic is used in folk and scientific medicine, veterinary medicine, in the fight against pests and diseases of plants and to prevent spoilage of agricultural products.
Useful properties of garlic
Garlic bulbs contain 35-42% dry matter; 6.0-7.9% crude protein; 7-25 mg% ascorbic acid; 0.5% reducing sugars; 20-27% polysaccharides; 53.3-78.9% sugars; 5.16% fat; vitamins B1, PP, B2. The ash of garlic contains 17 chemical elements; salts of phosphorus, calcium, copper, iodine, titanium, sulfur. Of particular importance are: iodine, which contains 0.94 mg per 1 kg of garlic, iron, which is the same as in apples - 10-20 mg per 100 g, as well as selenium and germanium. Garlic contains amino acids valuable for humans, including a lot of lysine. The presence of sulphides and essential oil determines the sharpness of the taste and the originality of the smell. Antibiotics of higher plants - phytoncides - contained in essential oil, inhibit the development of microorganisms. The bactericidal action of garlic is very high.
The chemical composition of garlic, including the content of essential oil, depends on the variety, the timing of planting and harvesting, soil and climatic conditions, storage conditions, and the composition of fertilizers applied. Garlic contains fructosans, carbohydrates that are easily absorbed by the human body.
Green leaves of garlic are the richest source of ascorbic acid, the content of which is 127-140 mg%. The sugar content in them is 3.7-4.2%.
All of the above raises garlic to the rank of things that people today cannot do without.
Features of culture
In the course of long evolution, garlic as a cultivated plant has lost its ability to reproduce through seeds and reproduces only vegetatively.
The entire assortment of garlic is divided into winter and spring varieties. The name of the form or variety - winter or spring - determines the timing of planting planting material. Spring garlic varieties are grown during spring planting in almost all geographical areas with favorable temperature and humidity conditions necessary for its cultivation in spring and summer.
It should be noted that most varieties are characterized by a limited range, and therefore, when they are transferred to other soil and climatic conditions that are sharply different from those in which these varieties were formed, they show significant changes in morphological and biological characteristics, which often leads to a decrease in the number and the quality of the bulb crop.
A large number of forms and varieties of garlic, created by selection in the process of human history, allowed it to spread to almost all regions of the earth: in temperate regions, in the subtropics and even in tropical regions.
The great need for the production of garlic for food and as a raw material for the manufacture of medicines, especially in connection with the recent discoveries of its original properties for the treatment of a number of human diseases, including cancer, has led to the fact that the production of this culture has increased significantly: the world's population began to consume much more garlic than before.
According to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), the gross production of garlic in the world has exceeded 10 million tons per year, and the area occupied by this crop is 981,000 hectares, while the yield was 10.2 t / ha. China takes the first place in the production of garlic in the world (from an area of 483,000 hectares, about 6.5 million tons are produced with a yield of 13.4 t / ha).
The situation with the production of garlic in Russia and its supply to the consumer market is currently extremely unsatisfactory. If in 1990 the area under garlic was 1130 ha, the yield was 2.6 t / ha, the gross harvest was 2938 t, then in 1998 these indicators were, respectively: 300 ha, 1.5 t / ha and 450 t, with Moreover, in agricultural enterprises the area for this crop was 40 hectares, and the gross harvest was 60 tons. Today, unfortunately, garlic reigns in the consumer market, purchased in China, India, Egypt, Central Asia, poorly stored, with low taste.
Currently, the production of garlic in Russia is concentrated mainly in home gardening, with winter garlic taking the main place in the planting structure. It is more early maturing and more productive, but it is poorly stored and is used for autumn and early winter consumption, as well as for canning. Varieties of spring garlic are less productive, but have a high keeping quality, due to which the bulbs are well preserved until the new harvest, and individual ones - up to two years, so it goes into use in the winter-spring-summer period, contributing to the year-round use of fresh garlic in the diet.
Spring garlic is grown as an annual bulbous plant when planted in early spring. The root regrowth of the clove in the soil begins at a low positive temperature, therefore early planting is recommended, which contributes to faster growth of leaves in the initial period.
The leaf of garlic plants is flat, grooved above, and keeled below. Leaf color varies from light to dark green with varying degrees of waxy bloom. Leaf width 0.5-1.5 cm. Leaf sheaths form a false stem. The number of leaves in one plant varies depending on the variety and growing conditions from 8 to 15. In the process of growth in the axils of the leaves, cloves are formed, forming a bulb. The setting of cloves usually begins behind 5-6 leaves and continues in a spiral until the end of the growing season, resulting in plants with multi-cloved bulbs (up to 25-30 cloves weighing 0.13-3.5 g). The bulb is ribbed, its shape varies from flat to round-oval. Dry covering scales have different colors depending on the variety.
It can be white, with pink, purple and brown tints in the form of blurry dark stripes of the indicated colors. The outer scales are lighter than those underneath. Dry scales covering the tooth are denser, thicker, strong and, as a rule, dark, violet-brown or pinkish-white in color, often covering the tooth scales are colorless. The juicy tissue of the clove is white, although there are varieties of pungent taste, in which it is yellowish-cream.
Read the second part of the article - Spring garlic: varieties, cultivation, features of agricultural technology →
A. Agafonov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
head Department of Onion Crops of the All-Russian Research Institute of Breeding and Seed Production of Vegetable Crops
V. Alekseev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
General Director of POISK-SPb LLC
What are microgreens? Description, features, cultivation and useful properties
Microgreen - shoots of plants in the cotyledon stage or the first true leaves. Sprouts are often referred to as microgreens. This name comes from the English microgreen.
Microgreens are used to decorate ready-made meals. It enriches food with vitamins and other useful elements. Gives food flavors (sweet, spicy, tart), supplements food with subtle aromas. Its color and texture enhances the attractiveness of dishes.
Garlic: useful properties, cultural features - garden and vegetable garden
The oldest mention of garlicthat has come down to us dates back to the time of Pharaoh Cheops IV (4500 BC). At first, he was one of the products that were given out to workers when building pyramids. The fame of garlic grew, it was even considered sacred and it was forbidden to eat it.
Miraculous property was attributed garlic ancient Greeks and Romans. To the Slavs garlic could have come from Byzantium. From there, it spread to more northern regions of Europe.
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF
Garlic is cultivated as an annual crop. It propagates only vegetatively - by the teeth of an underground bulb and air bulbs (bulbs), which are formed on the arrow.
Leaves are flat, linear, keel-shaped or grooved. The bulb consists of several (from 2 to 150) cloves. Outside, it is surrounded by several common dry scales with a color ranging from purple to white.
Distinguish garlic shooter, or stem-forming (it grows a flower arrow, it ends with an umbrella-shaped inflorescence, which is covered with a sheath before the flowers bloom), and non-shooting, or ordinary. The first is usually cultivated in a winter crop (it is early maturing, but poorly stored), the second - in a spring crop (it is less productive, but well stored).
In the Republic of Belarus, mainly local and introduced (imported from other regions) varieties are grown. Only three varieties of winter garlic have been zoned: Polet and Vitazhenets (selected by the Institute of Vegetable Growing), as well as Yubileiny Gribovsky (relatively resistant to fungal diseases). High storage capacity: bulbs are stored until March - April.
NUTRITIONAL AND HEALING VALUE
Bulbs contain sugars, crude protein, fats, pectins, carotene (especially in green leaves), vitamins B, B2, C, D, PP. Of the minerals, iodine and selenium are especially important for Belarusians. Valuable amino acids are found in garlic: lysine, thiamine. Essential oils and sulphides give a pungent taste and peculiar smell. The essential oil contains phytoncides.
Bactericidal properties of garlic used in medicine since ancient times - in the treatment of atherosclerosis, tuberculosis, asthma, respiratory diseases and some stomach diseases. Garlic boosts immunity, stimulates appetite, improves digestion and heart function, dilates blood vessels, lowers blood sugar, supports the function of brain cells, has diuretic, antiscorbutic, analgesic and antihelminthic properties.
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROWTH CONDITIONS
Garlic is a cold-hardy and frost-hardy crop. The roots of the cloves are formed at -1 ° C. Seedlings tolerate ordinary spring frosts painlessly. The optimum temperature for growth is 15-20 ° C.
Garlic is not very picky about light intensity, but it is also not considered shade tolerant.
Garlic is very sensitive to excess moisture and, which is especially important, to the level of groundwater, because may suffer from wetting and damping.
Garlic is very picky about soil fertility. The most suitable for it are soils with a deep arable layer, sandy loam or loamy, with a neutral reaction. The site must be protected from prevailing winds.
AGROTECHNICS OF GROWING
Good precursors for garlic are cucumbers, early white cabbage and cauliflower, zucchini, pumpkin, and root vegetables. Potatoes are not suitable because after it, garlic is usually affected by Fusarium, and sometimes by a nematode. Grow garlic best on ridges 15-20 cm high and up to 1 m wide.When the soil is cultivated in autumn, 5-6 kg / m2 of humus or matured compost is applied under it, and horse or cow manure (6-8 kg / m2 2), pork (4 kg / m 2), poultry manure (1.5 kg per 10 m 2). Of the mineral fertilizers, 30 g / m 2 of superphosphate and 20 g / m 2 of potassium chloride are used. After that, the site is dug to a depth of 20-25 cm, evenly mixing fertilizers with the soil. Growing winter garlic. The soil is prepared and fertilized two to three weeks before planting. Cutting ridges, cutting and marking is carried out in a day or two. For better heating, the ridges and rows are located from north to south. The optimal planting scheme is one-line with a row spacing of 20-25 cm. Optimum planting dates for winter garlic in Belarus: the third decade of September, the first half of October. The bulbs are divided into cloves no later than 2-3 days before planting. When separating, make sure that the old bottom does not remain on the bottom of the cloves, which does not allow moisture to pass through. The teeth are soaked in a solution of trace elements (standard set) or in water at room temperature for 18-24 hours, and dry a little before planting.
The teeth are planted with a distance of 8-10 cm (large) and 5-6 cm (medium and small). Planting depth - 3-4 cm from the top of the clove to the soil surface. Planting density: from 40 to 50 pieces per 1 m 2, for which 150-300 g are consumed. After planting, the surface of the ridges is mulched with peat or humus with a layer of 1.5-2 cm.
Features of care. Garlic begins to sprout when the snow has not completely melted yet. At this time, fertilizing is carried out with nitrogen fertilizers (10-15 g / m 2 of ammonium nitrate). As the soil dries up, the ridges are loosened to a depth of 4-5 cm.
Further care of crops consists in shallow (2-3 cm) loosening of row spacings, weeding, feeding and watering.
When the plants begin to lay cloves (they can be found by carefully removing all the leaves at the base of the last two), the crops are fed with a complete mineral fertilizer: 10 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium chloride per 1 m 2. In Belarus, this period begins in the 2-3rd decade of May.
After two months, arrows appear in the arrowhead forms of garlic. If air bulbs are not used as planting material, then after growing by 10-12 cm (before twisting into a ring), they are removed by cutting or plucking in the bosom of the last leaf. This technique helps to increase the yield by 20-30%.
Winter garlic is usually ready for harvesting in 100-110 days after germination (2nd decade of July).
Growing winter garlic from air bulbs. This is a must. It allows you to save and restore the variety. It is enough to propagate in this way once every 3 years. The arrows are cut when the wrapper is cracked, tied into small sheaves and hung under a canopy for ripening. You should not delay cleaning the arrows, because the air bulbs crumble and some of the largest bulbs are lost.
Dried onions are threshed, winnowed and calibrated after 25-30 days. For planting, use large full-fledged bulbs. Sowing is carried out in early spring and autumn at the same time as the cloves are planted. The sowing pattern is multi-line with row spacing of 10-15 cm. The seeding depth of bulbs during spring sowing is 3-5 cm, during autumn sowing - 5-7 cm. The seeding rate of large air bulbs is up to 75 g per 1 m 2. The rows must be mulched. If the bulbs are sown in spring, they are stored in a cold (2-5 ° C) or warm (18-20 ° C) room, threshed or in cut inflorescences (they are better preserved!).
Crop care consists in weeding, loosening row spacings and feeding (1-2 times per season). Harvesting begins as soon as the leaves turn yellow (1-2 days of August).
In the first year, a sevok, a single-toothed bulb, grows from the air bulbs. It is harvested in the same way as the onion set.The sevok is dried, the leaves are wiped off and stored in a cool, dry place until disembarking.
In autumn, seedlings are planted in rows with a distance of 20 cm between them and 5-7 cm between plants. The seeding depth is 4-6 cm.
A typical multi-toothed bulb and an arrow with airy bulbs develop from the seed planted in the fall.
Growing spring garlic. The technology and conditions are practically the same as for winter crops.
During the period of the beginning of the formation of bulbs, spring garlic plants are fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (15-20 g of superphosphate and 7-10 g of potassium chloride per 1 m 2).
In Belarus, spring garlic is ready for harvesting in the second half of September.
In folk medicine, garlic juice and gruel are used to treat purulent wounds, ulcers and burns. For colds, flu, tonsillitis, whooping cough, inhalation of garlic vapor has a good effect. Garlic gruel can be used instead of mustard plasters; for headaches, it is useful to apply it to the temples.
Tincture of garlic (with general weakness and dizziness): pour 40 g of peeled cloves in 100 g of alcohol. Insist 7 days in a sealed container. Drain the solution and add the mint tincture. Take 10-15 drops 3 times a day for 30 minutes. before meals.
Garlic (all parts) is consumed fresh and pickled. Its also dry! and are used as spices in salads, marinades, when pickling vegetables and mushrooms.
Delicious (and rare) recipes Sandwiches with mashed garlic and nuts. Crush 1 head of garlic, add 1 cup peeled walnuts and grind together. While stirring, add 2 tbsp. tablespoons of vegetable oil, salt and lemon with approx to taste. Stir well and spread on bread.
Garlic with beets and prunes. Crush 5-6 cloves of garlic, grate boiled beets (250-300 g) on a coarse grater and cut pre-soaked prunes (each berry into 2-3 parts), mix everything, season with vegetable oil or mayonnaise and salt to taste.
Garlic should be consumed in reasonable amounts. It can provoke vasospasm, thyroid dysfunction (due to high iodine content), stomach pain, nausea and vomiting.
Garlic is not recommended for gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, colitis with high acidity, diseases of the pancreas, liver and kidneys, obesity, epilepsy, and pregnant women.
USE FOR OTHER PURPOSES
Garlic protects food from spoilage (put in cereals, flour) and helps fight pests and diseases in the soda area.
ONION AND GARLIC. FIGHT AGAINST PESTS.
Pests of onions and garlic. Description of pests and control measures.
Onions and garlic are familiar to everyone and loved for the original bitter-spicy taste of the culture. There is hardly a site where these vegetables would not grow. Caring for them consists not only in watering, weeding and feeding, but also in the prevention and control of pests.
TOBACCO (ONION) TRIPS- small pest (about 1 mm long) of light yellow or dark brown color. The larvae are wingless, whitish or greenish-yellow. They damage onions, garlic, cucumbers, flowers and other crops. Females lay small brownish eggs, placing them singly under the skin in the leaf tissue. After 3-5 days, larvae hatch, which suck the juice from the leaves and inflorescences. As a result, the plants are stunted and the leaves wither. Thrips overwinter in plant debris, under dry onion scales, and also in the upper soil layer.
- Alternation of cultures
- Disinfection of the bulbs before planting in hot (45 ° C) water for 10 minutes, followed by cooling in cold water
- Around the seedlings, it is necessary to regularly loosen the soil by adding a mixture of pepper, mustard and ash (1 teaspoon of the mixture per 1 m 2).
Onion fly and its larvae.
ONION FLY- ash-gray, up to 1 cm long. In appearance it is similar to a housefly, the larvae are whitish. The fly begins in spring when lilacs and dandelions are in bloom. This is about the second half of May. Eggs are laid on onions, under the first dry scales or between leaves, on the soil near the plants. After 5-8 days, larvae appear, which are drilled into the bulb, more often from the bottom, and feed on fleshy scales. Plants stunted, their leaves wither, acquire a yellowish-gray tint, and then dry out. Damaged bulbs become soft, rot, and emit an unpleasant odor.
- Alternation of cultures
- Planting onions early
- Placing ridges of onions and carrots next to each other
- Watering the onion with a solution of sodium chloride (200 g per 10 l of water) is carried out when the feather reaches 8 cm, trying not to get on the feather
- Also, 1-2 dusting is carried out against each generation of flies during flight and egg-laying with deterrent agents: 200 g of wood ash and 1 teaspoon of tobacco dust and ground pepper per 1 m 2. After dusting, the soil must be loosened to a depth of 2-3 cm.
- In the fight against larvae, treatment with a tobacco solution is also effective: 200 g of tobacco dust or makhorka is poured into a bucket, 2-3 liters of hot water are poured and left for 2-3 days. Then add water to 10 liters, add 1 tablespoon of liquid soap and 1 teaspoon of ground black or red pepper. The solution is filtered and sprayed on plants and soil.
- In the second decade of May, treatment with Bazudin is necessary. The granules of the preparation are mixed with sawdust or sand (30 g per half-liter can of sawdust) and applied to the ground on an area of 20 m 2.
- You can also carry out the treatment with the drug "Iskra" (1 tablet = 10 g per 10 liters of water), consume 1 liter of solution per 1 m 2.
STEM NEMATODE- small (1-1.5 mm long) filamentous white parasitic worm. Larvae and adult nematodes feed on plant sap. The bottom of the bulb collapses, cracks, the bulb turns out, as it were, the juicy scales become friable, the bulb rots.
- Return of onions and garlic to infected areas no earlier than after 4-5 years
- Selection of uncharged seed
- Healing onion sets in hot water: at water temperature (40 ° C), the onion is immersed for 10-15 minutes, at (45 ° C) - for 5-6 minutes, at (55 ° C) - for 2-4 minutes. You can dilute 5 tablespoons of table salt in 5 liters of water and put onion sets or chives in the solution before planting for 15-20 minutes
- Sow calendula between the rows of garlic and onions.
Onion moth- causes great damage to onions in warm dry weather. Damaged leaves, starting from the tops, turn yellow and dry out. They show light, longitudinal, irregularly shaped spots - mines.
Caterpillars of the first generation harm in May - June. Moth butterflies are small (body length 6-8 mm, wingspan 12-14 mm), fly at night in July. Females lay yellowish eggs about 0.5 mm long at the base of the leaves, and sometimes near the plant on the soil surface. The hatched caterpillars penetrate the leaves and feed on them. Caterpillars are yellow-green, 8-11 mm long, with brown warts. In late September - early October, butterflies emerge from pupae, which remain for the winter. In the spring, in May, butterflies begin their flight.
- Crop rotation
- Fertilizing plants
- Destruction of plant residues
- Autumn digging of soil
- Spraying plants during the flight of butterflies and the appearance of caterpillars with insecticides (1 tablet of the Iskra preparation is diluted in 10 liters of water), consuming 1 liter of solution per 10 m 2.
ONION ROOT MITE- damages onions, garlic, tulips, daffodils, as well as other bulbous plants in the open field and in storage areas.
Ticks predominantly inhabit damaged or diseased plants. In the affected bulbs, the outer surface of the juicy scales is covered with brownish dust, the bottom at the edges is worn out and then falls off, the roots are not formed.
The female tick is short-oval, only 0.5-1.1 mm long. The mite is very hygrophilous, develops in warm, humid storage conditions, especially if the bulbs are covered with a thick layer. The tick penetrates into mature bulbs through the bottom. The female lays an average of 350 eggs. At the optimum temperature (26-28 ° C), one generation develops within 10 days, and at a temperature (15 ° C) - 30 days. The tick spreads with the remnants of damaged plants, soil, equipment. The mite is introduced into the soil with damaged bulbs.
- Deep digging of soil
- Destruction of rotten bulbs
- Drying the collected bulbs at a temperature (35-37 ° C) for five days.
- Storage of onions in pre-disinfected, well-ventilated areas.
- Against ticks, onion sets are treated with "Gray colloidal" (40 g is diluted in 10 liters of water), consuming 1 liter of working solution per 10 m 2. Processing is done 20 days before harvesting onions.
The onion-lurking beetle and its larva.
ONION HIDDEN- damages the bow. The larvae gnaw longitudinal whitish passages in the pulp of the leaves, which are visible through the skin. The larvae are yellowish, legless, with a brown head, 7 mm long. In early spring, when the air temperature rises to (9-10 ° C), around the beginning of May, beetles come out and begin to feed on onion leaves, eating holes of various depths in them. They leave the leaves through holes gnawed at the base and hide in cocoons in the top layer of the soil.
At the end of July, black, 2-3 mm long beetles appear. Antennae and legs are reddish-brown. Beetles feed on onion leaves all summer long, hibernate under plant remains, lumps of soil. Beetles are very shy: at the slightest touch, they fall to the ground. Ten days after mating, the females lay eggs in the grooves made in the leaves, from which larvae emerge after five to ten days.
- Loosening of row spacings with the addition of deterrent substances: wood ash, ground black, red pepper, dry mustard
- Dusting before loosening the soil near the onion plant.
- Spraying plants during the growing season with Karbofos (60 g per 10 l of water), consuming 1 l of working solution per 10m 2.
Who is not allowed to garlic
As for contraindications, it should be noted that any preparations containing garlic should not be used by people who have kidney problems. Also, such a product can be toxic to dogs and cats. If you have stomach or intestinal problems, you do not need to lean on such a vegetable, but in small portions there will be no harm. Otherwise, there is no evidence that this culture can adversely affect our microflora.
In our modern world, such a root crop has a lot of new species, each of which will attract our attention with one or another property. Its use is very diverse, and the amount of vitamins can strengthen our body, so that we will stop getting sick at all.
Purple potato varieties
The non-standard lilac or purple color of the potato pulp is not at all the fruit of genetic modification. In fact, it is a natural pigment that emerged from the crossing of wild vegetable species.
Today, this variety among gardeners is both an object of interest and distrust. But still, the demand for exotic fruits does not fade away. Therefore, it's time to figure out which varieties are better to buy for home cultivation.
Note that breeding work in this direction has not yet been completed. At the same time, botanists can already please summer residents with a variety of varieties with different intensity of color of the pulp of the tubers. So, the most popular creations are:
- "Vitelotte" - late variety, is an elongated root crop with dark purple pulp and almost black skin.
"All Blue" Are completely blue mid-season tubers, both inside and outside.
"Red Wonder" - an unpretentious and fruitful variety with light lilac pulp and deepened trees.
"Explosion" - early maturing, high-yielding variety with blue-violet fruits inside and out.
"Blue Danube" - the variety is distinguished by increased fruiting, high taste and disease resistance. It has bright purple skin and light flesh.
"Lilac" - characterized by a marbled lilac-white pulp, dark skin and almond flavor.
While the breeding work lasts, colored potato varieties will remain in the status of a delicacy. But there are so many useful qualities in them! If you have no contraindications to using the purple variety, try to get such a versatile and unpretentious vegetable. Moreover, there is already plenty to choose from.