Thuja eastern in room conditions
Ephedra in pots decorate the room and heal the air in them.
According to the horoscope, the zodiac sign Capricorn (December 22-January 20) corresponds to plants: dracaena deremskaya and fragrant; yucca elephant; fan palms; the fat woman is silvery and sickle-shaped; laurel noble; ficus; lithops - "living stones" and conifers - thuja, cypress, araucaria, yew, tuevik.
For almost fifteen years in our country, coniferous evergreen perennials have been popular as indoor plants. Under natural conditions, it is common in East Asia (China, Korea, Japan) and North America; we have in the south of the Far East. This plant is typical for a moderately mild warm climate and is found in mixed forests (with oak, spruce, pine, maple, etc.).
The famous Swedish botanist K. Linnaeus gave the Latin name to this group of trees, using the Greek word "thuo", which means "to sacrifice", since thuja trees were often used during sacrifices: logs for a ritual fire spread a pleasant aroma during burning.
Western thuja was brought to Europe from the northern part of the American continent (USA and Canada) for a very long time, it has been bred since 1536, wide-pyramidal forms of western thuja, taken from wooded swamps, were widespread. Then, according to legend, one of the kings of France called thuja "the tree of life". This is well deserved by thuja and is due to its wood, which is very resistant to decay (the American Indians made their canoes from it). The place of origin of the eastern thuja is considered to be the area that includes China, Korea and Japan, where it has long been known as a cultivated plant.
It is interesting that in its homeland - in China - it is quite widespread as an ornamental plant, but it is rarely found in natural conditions, growing on mountain slopes with poor soils. First, it was brought to Central Asia, where it was used as a cult plant, which was planted next to holy places and mosques, from there it spread across European territory. By the 19th century, thuja gained wide popularity as one of the best ornamental crops in open ground. It has been cultivated in Russia since the beginning of this century, now it is widely cultivated in the North Caucasus.
Genus Thuja (Thuja) is a member of the Cypress family (Cupressaceae), has 6 species, of which - the eastern thuja (Th. Orientalis), or biota (Biota) - is allocated in a separate genus - Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) and deserves some attention as a room culture, although sometimes stunted slowly growing forms of thuja western (Th. occidentalis L.) are kept.
The eastern thuja has a large number of forms with silvery or golden variegated tiled leaves emitting a specific smell. This tree (but much more often a bush) up to 12 m high (in favorable conditions up to 15-18 m), narrow pyramidal shape, bright green, with flat, fan-shaped branches, "paws", characteristically located in vertical planes, which is why and got its name. This thuja has a straight trunk, but very often already from the base it is divided into several ascending trunks (among botanists-taxonomists this phenomenon is called "poly-feed"), each of which has its own crown. The red-brown bark is crossed by narrow longitudinal grooves. Flat, scaly and triangular, opposite leaves (needles) are tightly pressed to the twigs. Above and below the needles are bright green in color, on young shoots they are more yellow. Under natural conditions, with the first frosts, it acquires a brown (protective) color.
The plant is monoecious, i.e. it has female and male cones appearing on the tops of non-lignified lateral shoots: male (small ovoid spikelets) - about 1.5 cm in size, female (round, green cones) - up to 2-3 cm.The fruit is an ovoid cone up to 2 -3 cm (first they are blue-green, then brown); their scales are very characteristic, ending at the top with a hook turned outward. Seeds that ripen in September - October are characterized by high germination: they can be germinated in spring, but it will no longer be possible to guarantee the preservation of forms with the same leaf color. To avoid such splitting of the original form, characteristic of seed propagation, use plant propagation by cuttings (July-August). Currently, more than 60 species of thuja eastern are known, differing in the size and shape of the crown, the structure of the shoots, and the color of the leaves.
Of course, many amateur flower growers would like to have thuja in their collection, and some commercial firms consider it prestigious to place this plant in their office, especially those of its forms, which are characterized by silver-variegated and golden-variegated leaves. In shops and stalls on sale, you can now see both plants from domestic producers and from foreign ones (mainly from Holland). It is best, of course, to purchase a flatworm in a company store, always in a container, pot or tub, but not with a bare root system.
Although thuja is considered a completely shade-tolerant culture, it grows into branches in the shade, but in good lighting it develops a pyramidal crown, but does not like direct sunlight. For this reason, it is best to place it on a north or west orientation window. The flat plant is drought-resistant, but nevertheless, the plant should be provided with a sufficiently moist peaty soil; stagnation of water in the container is unacceptable (a drainage layer must be arranged at the bottom of the pot).
In the spring, you can feed the plant with a weakly concentrated solution of complex mineral fertilizer (fresh manure is not used). For the winter period, it is recommended to place the flatfish in a cool room at a temperature of 6 ... 12 ° C (with an inflow of fresh and humid air). Failure to comply with this rule often leads to premature aging and death of the plant. During this period, the thuja is watered extremely moderately, preventing the earthen coma from completely drying out, since it is quite drought-resistant.
If necessary, transshipment of the flathead is best done in spring or early summer. In this case, the root collar of the plant can be slightly deepened: this will cause the formation of additional roots. Experts emphasize that large specimens for transplantation must be prepared in advance (preventive pruning should be done in advance, watering the plant thoroughly). After transplanting, abundant watering is important.
Note that the eastern thuja has a number of varieties characterized by different frost resistance, therefore, if necessary, an overgrown houseplant after careful preparation (spring hardening) can be planted in open ground, but it must be covered for the first two winters. Sometimes experts advise that multi-stemmed plants should be slightly pulled together with twine.
Although the thuja is considered a relatively winter-hardy crop that can withstand frost down to -20 ° C, in our zone, unfortunately, in some years the temperature may drop to -30 ° C and even -35 ° C, which is fatal for it, therefore, for safety net it is always necessary to warm it up in a timely manner and "undress" after frost in such a way that the plant does not overheat in the spring.
Reproduction of thuja eastern
The eastern thuja is propagated mainly by vegetative means, this is especially important for varietal forms. The best option is the division of multi-stemmed plants and the rooting of cut shoots (cuttings). For grafting, it is better to take lateral branches of last year's growth (July-August), and they take root faster if taken with a "heel" - a piece of mature wood. You can use solutions of stimulants (root, heteroauxin, etc.) to accelerate rooting.
Those lovers who want to propagate the flat leaf plant with seeds in spring should bear in mind that the germination rate of fresh seeds is quite high, but it is impossible to guarantee that young plants retain the same color of leaves as that of the mother plant. It is also important to know that its seeds have a "dormant" (ie, resting) embryo.
To awaken the latter, the seeds need cold stratification for three months at a temperature of 3 ... 5 ° C (for example, in the refrigerator, using white sphagnum moss). Seeds are mixed with coarse sand or sawdust, and after stratification are sown in containers filled with loose earth; keep at 20 ... 23 ° C. Seeds germinate within 1.5-2 months.
For seedlings, diffused light and maintaining a moderate moisture content of the soil substrate are important. Like all conifers, thuja are classified as phytoncidal plants. Its leaves (needles) constantly emit aromatic compounds (essential oils) into the air around them, which suppress pathogens. Experts believe that one plant is enough to purify the air of an average-sized room.
From the leaves and wood of thuja, scientists obtained aromadendrin, thixifolin; essential oil from the leaves of thuja oriental yellow color with a pleasant aroma. In Chinese folk medicine, the oriental thuja has long been used. For example, vegetative organs are used as a hemostatic and blood-expectorant drug, as well as for bronchitis and bronchial asthma.
Warm infusion of young shoots of the plant (one glass three times a day) is used for diseases of the bladder, kidneys, liver, gout and rheumatism. For its preparation, 20 g of needles are poured into 1 liter of boiling water and insisted in a sealed container. For the prevention of respiratory infectious diseases, it is recommended (for adults) to consume 5 drops of 10% alcohol tincture from twigs and needles three times a day; this tincture is also practiced externally.
The seed kernels of the squamous plant are taken orally as a tonic and strengthening agent.
candidate of biological sciences,
Senior Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection,
Pests and diseases
The most common problems with breeding cultivated thuja at home are associated with fungal diseases and pests. Due to careless maintenance or overflow, the tree dies. The yellowing of coniferous needles and branches is quite common. The reasons for such changes with the plant arise in a situation where the flowerpot with a tree has been under the scorching sunlight for a long time. The foliage was severely burned and discolored as a result. Either the pigmentation is caused by the fact that the root collar is too covered with earth, or, conversely, it sticks out high above the surface of the soil. In winter, yellowing of the needles is a common process, so there is no need to panic that the green pet is sick.
Thuja branches are susceptible to fungal infections. We are talking about fusarium and cytosprosis. The latter disease harms the cortex. Black streaks form on the surface. Gradually, the spores of the fungus are transferred to the inner layers of the trunk, which will inevitably lead to the death of the culture.
Signs of Fusarium infection are the coloring of the needles in a red or red color, followed by wilting. The disease also affects the underground root of the bush. If measures are not taken in time, the seedling will be difficult to save. Sick specimens must be treated with diluted Bordeaux liquid or Cartocide. Spraying sessions with chemicals are repeated every two weeks until the thuja is fully restored.
Thuja conifers attract scale insects and bark beetles. Pests, settling on needles, feed on cell sap. As a result, the branches begin to turn yellow. Scales settle on the seed coat and bark. When the bark becomes covered with small holes or narrow corroded canals, you should be afraid of bark beetles. These insects cause irreparable damage to wood. To control insects, chemicals from the group of insecticides are used, which are sold in gardening stores.
Care and feeding
Thuja care consists in warming it for the winter. Frosts above -30 degrees can be very destructive. In the heat, spraying the crown will not interfere with it. It is advisable to carry out constant weeding and mulching of the trunk circle. It must be below ground level for a reliable catchment. It is into this funnel that water is poured. Depending on the temperature and dampness of the air, its amount can fluctuate between 10-30 liters. In spring and autumn, natural compost is poured into the trunk circle. In early spring, dry and damaged shoots are removed.
Since spring, they have been feeding the plants, but, in no case, not for the winter. Nitrogen fertilizers are evenly scattered into the trunk circle, phosphorus fertilizers in the summer, and potash fertilizers in the fall. In the summer, nitroammofoska is introduced at the rate of 3 g per 1 kg of conditional nutrient material. Thuja has a strong and, at the same time, light wood, which is suitable for the manufacture of furniture, various decorative items, but not suitable for decorative finishing of buildings and premises.
The benefits of thuja for human health
Thuja, like other plants of the Cypress family (juniper, cryptomeria, etc.) contains medicinal oils in the needles, which, when extracted, help to improve human mental health, improve digestion, treat kidney disease and drive urine.
Inhalation of thuja essential oil is useful in the treatment of inflammatory processes of the respiratory system (cough, bronchitis, asthma, etc.), and also restores strength, restores vigor and good mood.
Thuja oil is obtained by digestion of useful substances from thuja cones and needles, followed by distillation. The oil has a yellowish color and a rich pine smell. The oil has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. In scientific medicine, thuja oil is prescribed for the complex treatment of sinusitis and rhinitis.
An aromatherapy session with thuja oil can be carried out at any time of the day by dropping drops of oil on a special lamp or on a hot battery (it is better to moisten a cloth with oil and put it on a heating radiator). The air in the room will be filled with a coniferous aroma and cleansed of pathogenic bacteria. The aroma will relieve the swelling of the nasal mucosa and relieve the nervous tension in the patient. If there is no phytolamp at hand and the heating is turned off, then you can drop oil into hot water and put a cup of water at the head of the patient's bed.
The thuja hedge is beautiful all year round, besides, it freshens the air well. And growing it yourself, as you can see, is not at all difficult. Good luck to you!
Possible diseases of thuja eastern pyramidal
Thuja eastern pyramidal pests and diseases are practically not affected. In some cases, aphids are found on these trees. The resistance of thuja orientalis, including Aurea Nana, to such dangerous pests as scale insects, false scale insects and spider mites makes these trees very attractive for widespread use.
For planting pyramidalis aurea, it is best to purchase molded material with a closed root system.The optimal time for planting plants with a closed root system is from the beginning of spring to the end of summer, for the eastern thuja with an open root system - from the second decade of March to the second decade of April. This does not require the preparation of a special planting mixture. The ideal substrate for eastern thuja is ordinary black soil. In the first two months after transplanting, abundant and frequent watering is required (every 10 days). Well-established trees do not need watering, with the exception of the dwarf form of the thuja of the eastern Aurea Nana.
Groups of varieties according to the speed of growth, shape and color of the crown
Thuja flatfish (aka eastern) is widely used to create live borders and hedges. In total, there are more than 50 varieties, but not all of them are suitable for the climatic features of Russia. Only two types are most in demand.
Thuja eastern Pyramidalis (Pyramidalis Aurea)
Thuja eastern Aurea has golden dense needles. With its help, you can protect the site from strong winds. In summer, it is resistant to drought, and in winter it is able to withstand frosts down to -25 ° C.
Thuja eastern Aurea Nana (Area Nana)
Tuya Aurea Nana, whose description and dimensions correspond to a dwarf form, reaches a height of less than 2 m. Dense needles take golden hues in summer, and become turquoise in winter.
Asparagus or popularly called hare chill refers to ornamental plants. Growing asparagus is possible, both in a flower bed near the house, and in indoor conditions. There are about 300 species of this plant. Let's consider the most common ones. In appearance, the plant resembles a small tree with beautiful needle-like leaves. It grows in indoor conditions of different heights, the color ranges from light green to dark green. The leaves are acicular, depending on the type, fluffy or flattened to the branches. Asparagus bears fruit. Fruits are bright in color, found in several types of hare chill. In general terms, the plant is inconspicuous, but in a bouquet of roses or other home flowers it looks very exotic, adding romanticism and tenderness to the overall picture. Since the cultivation technology is not complicated, and does not require special costs and efforts, a hare chill can be found in the corridors of schools and cinemas, libraries and kindergartens. Among the species of asparagus, there are liana plants that look very beautiful on the walls. You can also see asparagus bushes as a component of landscape design, looks good on rocky compositions, gives vitality and freshness very much. And naturally, lovers of greenery in the apartment prefer hare chill with great pleasure.
It grows very quickly, so it needs a transplant from time to time. The plant is shade-loving, does not tolerate direct sunlight, and can receive severe burns. If the hare chill grows in the open field, it is recommended to shade it in hot sunny weather, or to plant it in compositions so that other taller plants shade it. The plant loves moisture enough, so you need to water every other day in the summer. In general, the tropical climate will be just right for such a plant. The plant needs to be fed with organic fertilizers. For this purpose, you can use chicken manure in a 1: 5 ratio. In the apartment, you can feed it with ordinary complex mineral fertilizers for indoor plants. The frequency of feeding is 1 time per 2 weeks. In winter, the plant practically stops growing, so caring for it in winter includes only watering, but not abundant.
Growing asparagus and caring for him is not at all difficult, and even adolescents can do it. Breeding hare chill is also pretty easy. To do this, when transplanting, you just need to divide the root system carefully, without damaging the root processes too much. Breeding with seeds is also known. But this method is rather slow. Seeds germinate for a long time, for 2 months, and it will be possible to plant a plant in open soil only after six months. This method is quite long, but the plants are very strong and resistant to diseases. Among the pests, such as aphid spider mites are known. Most often, the plant is affected by yellowness and leaf fall due to a lack of moisture and fertilizers.