How potassium affects plants, how much is needed
The macronutrient potassium does not perform a construction function, like nitrogen, or an engineering function, like phosphorus. However, every plant needs it. Potassium controls the absorption of nutrients from the ground by the roots and their further movement through each plant.
In addition, it participates in the process of cell renewal, as a result of which the epithelium is strengthened and the plant's resistance to unfavorable environmental factors and infections increases. Experiments of experienced gardeners show that replacing potassium with similar substances does not give any result: potassium is irreplaceable.
Signs of starvation
Lack of potassium, like nitrogen and phosphorus, negatively affects the development of plants. Unfortunately, in the early stages, potash hunger is difficult to recognize. The signs of a lack of this macronutrient are not very noticeable at first: in plants, growth is slightly delayed and susceptibility to low temperatures increases. If you do not take any measures, then the next phase may begin, manifested by darkening and drying of the tips and edges of the leaves. A lack of potassium is indicated by whitish specks appearing on old leaves. New leaves, especially during active growth, begin to wrinkle.
Acute lack of potassium leads to the fact that the leaves of plants become coarse, holes appear on them, and the edges become uneven and look like cut. The fruits are deformed and rotting rapidly. For example, cucumbers turn into a kind of pear: narrow at the petiole and spherical at the opposite end.
In cereals, a lack of potassium affects the quality of not only the grain, but also the stems: many empty grains appear in the ears, which will not germinate next year. The straws become brittle, cannot withstand the weight of the ears, and the bread completely collapses. In potato tubers, the amount of starch decreases, in beets - sugar, in the fruits of berry bushes - pectin.
The reasons for the shortage
A lack of potassium occurs from the absence or too little of this component in the dressings.
It should be borne in mind that nightshade plants - potatoes, tomatoes and peppers - have a great need for potassium. Therefore, applying fertilizers under them, you need to increase the potassium rate by about 2 times.
The reason for the deficiency of potassium may also be that the assimilation of this element from the soil by plants is impeded by the simultaneous introduction of ammonium sulfate, phosphorus fertilizer or ammonium carbonate, therefore, it is preferable to fertilize the soil with them separately from potash dressings.
Potash dressing should be applied after rains, because water washes this valuable component out of the leaves. More often than in other soils, potassium is added to sandy, loamy and highly moistened soils. Salty soils are not fertilized with this element, because it retains the salt in the soil.
How to correct
Potash hunger is eliminated by the immediate introduction of any potash fertilizer into the soil. Potassium sulfate, potassium nitrate and potassium magnesia are added at the rate of 70 g / m², and potassium chloride - 40 g / m². A good top dressing is the ash of cereal straw, which will take about 50 g for 1 m² of the plot. To eliminate the potassium deficiency in tomato beds, it is better to use potassium magnesia. Dry fertilizers are applied as follows: they are evenly scattered over the area and generously watered.
Although an excess of potassium will not greatly harm the plants, it is still better to observe a sense of proportion, since the high concentration of this element in the earth prevents the absorption of magnesium, calcium, manganese and other important elements by plants. You can find out if plants have enough potassium by looking at the state of their leaves.
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Sections: Fertilizers Gardening
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1. Choosing the type of phytolamp
The site has an article in which all types of lamps are considered in great detail, everyone can familiarize themselves with it. Let's just say: it is best to immediately stop at the LED PHYTO lamp... The peculiarity of such lamps is that they do not heat up and shine in a pink-lilac color (the lamps have red - 640-660 nm and blue - 435-460 nm LEDs), i.e. exclusively in the phytoactive part of the spectrum. In the part that plants need for growth and photosynthesis.
There are also lamps on sale that shine with white light, white LEDs are added to them, which are more pleasing to the human eye. This does not affect plants in any way, but many people are annoyed by the abundance of pinkish glow. White LEDs almost completely remove the pink tint, you can even read under these lamps.
PHYTO lamp is a combination of red and blue LEDs
Another advantage of LED lamps: they do not heat up and consume little energy.
If you still have old fluorescent lamps, then they can also be used, but their efficiency is lower than that of specialized PHYTO lamps. But ordinary incandescent light bulbs are not suitable at all (: they heat up and have a radiation spectrum that is not suitable for plants.
Why is potassium deficiency dangerous?
- The reproductive function of plants is deteriorating. Few buds, fruits are formed, fruits become small.
- The risk of infection by fungal diseases and pests increases.
- Frost resistance decreases.
How do you know if your plants are deficient in potassium? The first sign is a marginal leaf burn. With a lack of potassium, the leaves, especially the lower ones, become brown at the edges, as with a burn. Traces of rust can be seen on the plate.
The disinfection procedure is necessary in order to get rid of all pathogens that live on the shell of the seeds. The most common recipes include potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide.
- Soaking seeds in potassium permanganate tomatoes is carried out for the purpose of disinfection. How to properly soak tomato seeds before planting in a composition with potassium permanganate? A light pinkish solution is being prepared. If the mixture is saturated, the tomatoes may die. Keep seeds in potassium permanganate for no more than 35 minutes. After 30 minutes, they are removed from the mixture and washed. You can use baking soda for this. This will completely disinfect the planting material.
- It is very simple to prepare the solution. In a liter of water, dilute 30 g of soda. In this solution, the seeds are left for three hours. Then they are washed with clean water and placed in gauze soaked in fertilizers. Seed sowing can be started after just three days. Thanks to these solutions, the seedlings will have a strong stem, roots and a high yield.
- How to treat tomato seeds with hydrogen peroxide? For two days, you can soak the seeds in 10% hydrogen peroxide to achieve a disinfecting effect. The amount of active ingredient should be equal to the number of seeds. A solution with hydrogen peroxide reduces the content of nitrates in fruits, increases the rate of germination, and strengthens the immune system. In addition, it helps to disinfect the surface of each grain, which often contains germs and fungi in a dormant state.
- Often, gardeners use the biological preparation Fitolavin for self-cultivation of tomatoes. The composition based on streptotricin antibiotics prevents the development of the most common diseases among tomatoes. The drug is absolutely safe for humans and does not affect the beneficial soil flora.
- Thermal disinfection has been popular since ancient times. The method allows you to get rid of harmful microbes and increase productivity. To this end, a place will be organized for planting material within two days where the air temperature will be about 30-50 degrees.
If already at this stage you begin to fight bacteria and fungi, then in the future green bushes will be able to fight the invasion of pathogenic bacteria on their own.
Advantages and disadvantages
This unique organic soil fertilizer has a multifaceted effect on the soil and plants at different stages of development. Competent use of vermicompost does not harm indoor flowers and various crops of the garden and vegetable garden.
- Actively fertilizes the soil.
- Suitable for all types of plants.
- Safe remedy: no harmful flora.
- Can be used for several years in a row on the site without reducing the positive effect.
- Has a complex effect on different cultures.
- Increases productivity.
- Has a higher percentage of nitrogen than humus.
- It does not have a pungent, unpleasant odor, unlike manure.
- Stimulates the formation of buds and abundant flowering of indoor plants.
- Activates the growth of the root system.
There are other advantages of eco-fertilization:
- Suitable for seed and seedling treatment.
- The natural remedy belongs to the class of substances with a low fire hazard, non-toxic.
- It has a positive effect on the fertility of the substrate.
- Can be combined with other types of fertilizers.
- Does not clog the soil, unlike manure.
- Good friability.
- Biofertilizer absorbs moisture well.
- Even after freezing the natural remedy and further defrosting, the unique organic fertilizer does not lose its beneficial properties.
- Stimulates the formation and reproduction of soil microorganisms, with the active vital activity of which humus is formed.
There were no negative moments when using vermicompost. Excessive application of organic fertilizer provokes an increase in soil pH levels, which violates the microflora of the substrate.
Possible negative nuances are associated only with the incorrect use of a concentrated product (exceeding the norm by 1 sq. M or flowerpot), but such cases are an exception. There are practically no negative reviews about biohumus, natural organic fertilizer is recommended by many vegetable growers, flower growers and gardeners.
How to make fertilizer from fresh banana peels
You need to know the best moment when feeding will bring the greatest result, and not add to the hassle.
Banana peels are used:
- In liquid form (infusion)
- Dried (powder or whole slices)
- Fresh crusts cut into pieces
- Fresh, cut skins are used when planting seedlings and seedlings on the site.
Banana peel solution.
- Plants can be mulched with dry crusts. They are added to the ground when planting.
- The powder is suitable for fertilizing the soil in the beds.
- Compost is versatile and ideal for many garden and home jobs.
Fresh Banana Skin Fertilizer Recipe
There are many ways to prepare fertilizer. I want to give you the simplest and most effective ones. Remember that effectiveness is largely dependent on correct preparation and use, as well as timeliness and moderation.
Applying fresh skins in the garden
- Banana skins should be thoroughly washed under running water and soap. This should be done immediately after the bananas are brought home from the store. Be sure to wash bananas before eating! In addition to chemicals, the skin contains many bacteria and even viruses. Just think what way they go to get to our table.
Cut the skins into small pieces.
- When planting, add a small amount of chopped skins to the holes to the flowers. We dig in ornamental shrubs and trees into the trunks.
- It is necessary to deepen the skins to a depth of 10-15 cm. On the surface, they will become moldy and attract many insects.
Do not get carried away, the skins will begin to rot in the ground. Rot can spread to your plant. It may even die.
After a short time, there will be no trace of the fertilizer. The fertilizer decomposes quickly and saturates the soil well. You will notice the effect of such feeding soon.
Using dried banana peels
This option is suitable for flowering and fruiting plants. It prevents root rot.
- Cut the washed peel into small pieces and dry.
- To prevent the peel from becoming moldy, lay it out in a thin layer on paper in a ventilated area: in the attic, in the garage or in the sauna.
Fertilizer from dried banana skins.
- You can dry it on the battery. Place the skins directly on top of the batteries with the outer, yellow side to prevent them from sticking.
- An oven will work too. Please note that with such drying, there are much less useful trace elements in the final product.
- Next, grind everything in a coffee grinder.
Application of dry crusts
The dried skins can be used as drainage in flower slides and when picking seedlings. Break them into small pieces with your hands and lay them on the bottom in a small layer. Dry crusts can be ground in a coffee grinder to make a powder. If necessary, you can make infusions from them. By the way, the infusion from dry crusts smells much less than from fresh ones. And most importantly, the banana peel infusion has a beneficial effect on indoor and garden flowers.
An option for preparing an infusion from dried banana skins
- Take 1 banana skin and fill it with 1 liter of water. Better to use melt water.
- We put it in a warm place and forget about the infusion for 5 days.
- During this time, the contents will ferment. We receive 1 liter of natural, liquid, concentrated fertilizer.
- We filter the liquid.
- Add clean water: in a ratio of 1: 2 for irrigation, and 1: 10 for spraying.
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