The herbaceous perennial plant eggplant, also called dark-fruited nightshade (Solanum melongena), either blue or badrijan, is a representative of the nightshade genus. In natural conditions, it can be found in India, South Asia, as well as in the Middle East. Thanks to ancient Sanskrit texts, scientists learned that eggplant began to be cultivated about 1.5 thousand years ago. It was the Arabs who were the first to spread this culture around the world. They brought eggplants to Africa in the 9th century AD. In Europe, this vegetable appeared in the middle of the 15th century, but it became popular only in the 19th century.
Features of eggplant
The height of the eggplant bush varies from 0.4 to 1.5 m. Large alternate leaf plates have a rough surface, they are painted green, sometimes with a purple tint. Semi-umbellate inflorescences consist of 2-7 flowers, which can also be single. In diameter, bisexual purple flowers reach 20-25 mm. Flowering is observed in July – September. The fruit is a large cylindrical, round or pear-shaped berry, it can reach about 0.7 m in length and about 0.2 m in diameter. Fruits weigh about 1 kilogram, they have a shiny or matte dark purple color. Inside them are flat small brownish seeds that ripen in the last summer or first autumn weeks.
Three golden rules for growing eggplant
Growing eggplants from seeds
Sowing eggplant seeds
Eggplant belongs to the Solanaceae family, and it is considered its most thermophilic representative. Frost can destroy it, so in the middle latitudes it is grown exclusively in seedlings. Duration of ripening of early ripening varieties is 100 days from the moment the seedlings appear. In late-ripening varieties, the ripening period is about 150 days. It is recommended to sow seeds for seedlings in the first half of March, while it should be borne in mind that during planting the eggplant in open soil, the ground should warm up to at least 18 degrees, while only those seedlings that are at least 75 days can be planted.
The seeds of this plant require pre-sowing preparation. Experienced gardeners recommend choosing the seed of the second, not the first year of storage, since it is more viable. To activate the seeds, they must be immersed in a solution of potassium humate (3%) for three days. Then they are planted one by one in individual pots or cassettes. They need to be filled with a moistened substrate, which includes humus (20%), high moor peat (60%), sawdust or sand (5%), vermicompost (5%) and sod land (10%). In the soil mixture, the seeds need to be buried only 10 mm. When the sowing is done, the substrate should be tamped, after which the container is covered from above with glass or film.
Growing eggplant seedlings
Containers with crops must be removed to a warm place (about 25-26 degrees). If everything is done correctly, the first seedlings will appear after 1.5-2 weeks. After most of the seedlings appear, the shelter must be removed, while the containers are rearranged to a warmer and well-lit place. It is quite simple to care for such seedlings. From the moment of sowing and before buds appear on the bushes, you do not need to water the seedlings. Eggplant seedlings do not need high humidity. During the formation of buds, an increase in air humidity and substrate will be required.
If fertile soil was used for sowing seedlings, then there is no need to feed it. If the substrate contains a small amount of nutrients, then the seedlings will need to be fed 2 or 3 times with a weak solution of Crystallin (for 1 bucket of water from 12 to 15 grams).
Make sure that the seedlings have enough light. If it is not enough, then the plants will be very elongated. If a prolonged cloudy weather is established, then in the room where the seedlings are located, the air temperature must be reduced by a couple of degrees (for this, you can resort to airing), and you also need to reduce the humidity of the air and substrate.
CORRECT SEEDING OF EGGPLANTS! PART 1. CULTIVATION OF EGGPLANT SEEDLINGS.
It was already mentioned above that eggplants react extremely negatively to picking, therefore individual containers should be used for planting them. But if the seedlings have 1 or 2 true leaf plates, they need to be transplanted by transshipment, while using individual pots of a larger volume (diameter about 10-12 centimeters). This procedure can be called picking. Before transplanting, the seedlings are well watered, after which the plants are carefully pulled out together with a lump of earth from the old pots and placed in new ones. Hardening of seedlings should be started half a month before planting them in open soil, while the temperature of the content should be reduced gradually, as a result, its result should be equal to 14-15 degrees. Immediately 2 days before disembarkation, the seedlings should be left outside for the entire daylight hours, but if the weather is warm, then it can not be brought in even at night. Hardening allows the seedlings to be more resistant to wind, as well as to improve their adaptation to direct sunlight and colder temperatures. Seedlings that are intended for planting in a greenhouse do not need to be hardened.
Planting eggplants in open ground
What time to plant
Planting eggplant seedlings in open soil should be done only when the ground warms up to at least 18 degrees, while the age of the plants should be 8-10 weeks (from the moment of emergence). The height of the seedlings by this time should be from 16 to 25 centimeters, and the plants should also have from 8 to 10 true leaf plates, while sometimes there are several formed buds. It will be very good if, after planting the eggplant in open soil, the threat of return frosts is left behind. As a rule, the first days of June are the most suitable time for planting eggplant in open soil.
For planting eggplant, you should choose a well-lit area that should be protected from gusts of wind. It is recommended to plant eggplants in the area where cabbage, cucumber, carrots, onions, garlic, zucchini, beans or peas previously grew. For planting, you should not choose an area where pepper, physalis, potatoes, tomatoes, and also eggplants were previously grown.
Best of all, this vegetable crop grows in sandy loam or loamy soil. It also grows quite normally on heavier soil, but it must be prepared before planting. To do this, humus and peat must be added to it (one bucket per 1 square meter of the plot), and sawdust or coarse river sand are also added to it. It is recommended to prepare the soil in advance in the autumn, about 6 months before planting seedlings on the site, while fertilizers should be applied when digging the soil to the depth of a shovel bayonet. You can also add manure to the soil if you wish: in the fall it is used fresh, and in the spring you can take only rotted manure. Experienced gardeners recommend preparing a site for eggplant in autumn, while in spring, after the snow cover has melted, the soil should dry out well. After that, using a rake, it should be thoroughly loosened. If the soil is poor, then at the same time the following fertilizers should be applied to it: 1 tsp is taken per 1 square meter of the plot. urea, 2 tbsp. wood ash and 1 tbsp. potassium sulfate and superphosphate.
Planting eggplants in open ground. How to plant eggplants
Open ground landing rules
Planting holes must be made on the site. Between them, a distance of 0.3 to 0.4 m must be observed, while their depth should be 20-30 mm higher than the height of the container in which the seedlings are located, while the row spacing should be approximately 0.6 m. After that, the prepared planting the pits should be filled with water. The seedlings are planted in the mud obtained in the pits. Before planting, the eggplants must be well watered, they are pulled out of the pot along with a lump of earth, after which they are planted in open soil. After the plants are planted, the ground around them must be tamped. Then the surface of the site must be mulched with peat or dry soil.
During the first 15 days, the land under the planted bushes should be moist all the time. In order to prevent the soil from drying out too quickly, its surface must be covered with peat.
Growing eggplants in a greenhouse
For growing in a greenhouse, experts advise choosing hybrid varieties, and the best of them are: Purple Miracle, Nutcracker and Bagheera. Rules for planting eggplant seedlings in a greenhouse:
- Plants should have 8 or 9 true leaf plates.
- The root system of the seedlings should be very well developed.
- The height of the plants must be at least 20 centimeters.
- Planting in a greenhouse should be carried out after the seedlings reach the age of 65–75 days (from the moment of emergence).
It is very important to properly prepare the beds in the greenhouse. In autumn, the soil is cleaned from plant residues, after which it is disinfected, for this, a solution of copper sulfate is used (for 1 bucket, 2 tbsp. L.). 20 days before planting seedlings in the greenhouse, fertilizers should be applied to the soil, 60 grams of superphosphate, 15 grams of magnesium sulfate, 4 kilograms of humus, 30 grams of ammonium nitrate and the same amount of potassium sulfate are taken per 1 square meter. Then you need to dig up the soil, after which the surface of the beds is leveled. The depth of the planting holes should slightly exceed the height of the pots in which the seedlings grow, while the distance between the bushes should be 0.45 m, and the row spacing should be about 0.6 m.
The seedlings must be well watered immediately before planting in the greenhouse. The plant must be carefully pulled out of the container along with a lump of earth, after which they are transferred into the planting holes. The void in the holes must be filled with soil, after which it should be tamped. The planted eggplants need to be watered. This culture is quite hygrophilous, in this regard, watering should be given special attention. Please note that the planted plants can be watered a second time no earlier than 5 days after transplanting. The further watering regime is once a week, when the fruiting period begins, then the eggplants will need to be watered more often (2 times in 7 days). Watering is done in the early morning and lukewarm water is used for this. When the eggplants are watered, it is imperative to ventilate the greenhouse, since the air humidity in it should not be elevated. The recommended air temperature for growing eggplant is 28 degrees. It should be noted that the greenhouse should not be hotter than the recommended temperature, therefore, special attention should be paid to ventilation, especially if it is very hot outside. In addition, in the heat, it is necessary to regularly water the paths in greenhouses. You need to feed the plants a couple of times throughout the season:
- The first time before fruiting begins, half a month after transplanting the seedlings into the greenhouse. To do this, use mineral and complex fertilizers (Kemiru or Solution).
- The second feeding is arranged after the beginning of fruiting. For this, phosphorus-nitrogen fertilizers are used (for 1 tbsp. Of water, 1 tbsp. Of superphosphate and ammonium nitrate are taken).
Organic matter should be added to the soil only once, immediately before planting the eggplant. If it is added later, then this can provoke active growth of greenery, as well as lush flowering, but there will be no ovaries on the bushes. It should be noted that in the greenhouse the bushes grow relatively fragile and rather tall, therefore it is recommended to tie them to supports. Also, experts advise to remove lateral processes from plants, while leaving only 5 of them the most powerful.
Due to improper care when grown in a greenhouse, eggplants can be struck by tobacco mosaic or late blight, diseased bushes should be sprayed with a solution of Fitosporin or Zircon. For prevention purposes, it is recommended to systematically ventilate the greenhouse, because these diseases develop due to excessively high air humidity. In the greenhouse, these plants can be harmed by insects such as whiteflies, aphids and spider mites. In order to prevent the appearance of pests, it is also necessary to regularly ventilate the greenhouse.
MYTHS ABOUT GROWING EGGPLANTS in a greenhouse
When growing eggplant in open ground, they should ensure timely watering, removal of weeds, loosening of the soil surface between the rows, top dressing, and bushes of late and mid-season varieties will need shaping.
How to water
These plants are especially in need of watering during mass fruiting. During the first decade after planting seedlings in the soil, abundant watering can cause bushes that have not yet had time to take root, can weaken very much. For irrigation, use lukewarm (25 to 30 degrees) water. It must be poured carefully under the root, while trying to prevent liquid from getting on the surface of the leaf plates of the bushes. When the plants are watered, gently loosen the surface of the soil between the rows, while pulling out all the weeds. During the season, it will be necessary to loosen the surface of the site at least 5 times so that a strong crust does not appear on it. However, if after planting the site is covered with a layer of mulch (peat), then it will be possible to significantly reduce both the number of loosening and weeding.
How to tie an eggplant
Greenhouse eggplants are much taller than those grown outdoors, so be sure to tie them up. Bushes are tied in three places, while using stakes or trellis. As soon as the bushes are planted in the soil, you should start shaping them into one stem, while after a while he will need a garter to the support. The most powerful shoot should remain on the bush, while all other lateral processes must be cut off. If there are only flowers and leaves on the bushes, their resistance is quite good. But after the formation of the ovaries and during the growth of the fruit, there is a manifold increase in the load on the stem, in this regard, their resistance sharply decreases (especially in tall varieties). The single stem growing method is perfect for greenhouses because it is very compact and can save a lot of space. If this vegetable crop is grown in open ground, then in this case, the formation of bushes into several stems is recommended.
In order for the bushes to be more lush after their height is 0.3 m, it is necessary to pinch the top of the main stem. In an overgrown bush, remove all the upper lateral shoots, except for 2–5 of the strongest, with the help of a secateurs. When pruning, take into account that the remaining shoots should be evenly illuminated.
These plants need to be fed quite often, about once every 15–20 days. The first feeding is carried out 2-3 weeks after transplanting the seedlings into open soil. For feeding, mineral fertilizers should be used, while 10 grams of superphosphate and ammonium nitrate, as well as from 3 to 5 grams of potassium sulfate, are taken per 1 square meter of the plot.You can replace the listed fertilizers with crystalline, ammophos or nitrophos (per 1 square meter from 20 to 25 grams). During the next top dressing, the fertilizer rate should be increased by 1.5–2 times, but this is done gradually. After feeding is done, do not forget to water the area. Also, this culture can be fed with slurry. This plant also needs foliar dressing; for this, the foliage on the bushes must be sprayed with a solution of boric acid of weak concentration. If the summer turned out to be cool, then it is recommended to spray the eggplant foliage with a solution of trace elements. Remember that the solution prepared for spraying plants on the leaf should be several times weaker than that poured under the root.
Eggplant in the open field. (20.07.16)
Diseases and pests of eggplant
Most often, eggplants are sick with mosaic, late blight, black leg, stolbur and gray rot.
Blackleg is considered a fungal disease. In the affected plant, the root collar turns black and collapses. After the root system is affected by the disease, the bushes dry up and die. Most often, this disease affects eggplant seedlings, and excessively high humidity of the air and substrate provokes its development.
Due to the mosaic, the gardener can lose about 15 percent of the eggplant crop. In an infected bush, an unusual variegated color appears on the surface of the leaf plates. As a rule, plants are affected by this virus during a dive.
Stolbur phytoplasma disease most often damages those plants that are grown in the open field, while greenhouse plants are less frequently affected by it. In the affected bushes, the leaf plates acquire a purple-red color, while the upper ones become corrugated. The shoots become thicker and more fragile, deformation, drying and foliage are observed. They carry this disease of leafhoppers.
Gray mold is also a fungal disease, and its spread occurs through infected plant debris. This fungus is especially active at high air humidity, while the temperature should be at least 20 degrees. In affected plants, dark water spots form on the foliage, fruits and shoots, on the surface of which a gray bloom appears after some time. As the disease progresses, inflorescences are affected, as well as fruits. The peduncles turn black and dry, and at the fruits, at first, vague, like subcutaneous, spots are formed, which gradually become larger.
Diseases and pests of EGGPLANT
The greatest danger to this culture is posed by such harmful insects as: spider mites, aphids and naked slugs. Spider mites and aphids are sucking insects that feed on plant sap. They pierce the surface of shoots and leaf plates, as a result, they are observed to dry, wilt and twist. Slugs damage foliage, leaving only streaks of it, and they also harm the fruit.
To cure eggplants or get rid of harmful insects, the bushes need to be processed in a timely manner and correctly. But it is better to prevent infection with the disease than to fight it. For prevention purposes, the rules of crop rotation should be observed; for this, these plants cannot be planted in the area where unwanted predecessors, for example, nightshade, previously grew. Also, eggplants need to be provided with proper care, and you will also need preventive soil treatment on the site and seed material before planting. To disinfect the seeds, they are immersed for 30 minutes in a strong solution of potassium manganese or in a weak solution of hydrochloric acid. Soil processing is carried out before planting the eggplant, then when they take root, as well as after all the fruits have been collected and plant residues have been removed from the site. In this case, copper-containing agents are used for soil cultivation, for example, Bordeaux mixture or copper sulfate. Thanks to these preventive measures, plants will be protected from infection with mosaics or late blight. If the eggplants do get sick, then they will need to be sprayed with a solution of Fitosporin or Zircon. If the bushes are affected by a columnar or a black leg, then it will not be possible to cure them, but for prevention purposes, it is recommended to disinfect the substrate and seeds before sowing.
If there are not a very large number of slugs on the bushes, then you can try to collect them by hand. But in the event that there are a lot of pests, then the surface between the rows must be loosened, and then covered with a layer of a mixture consisting of tobacco dust, wood ash and lime. For other pests, it is recommended to spray the bushes before flowering and after it with insecticidal preparations that quickly decompose, for example, Karbofos or Keltan, or, if desired, use the Arrow tool, which is safe for humans.
HARVEST METHOD FOR GROWING EGGPLANTS. SUPER SOLUTION WITH BIRCH TARN FROM COLORADA BEETLE !!!
Collection and storage of eggplants
You can start harvesting eggplant fruits 30–40 days after the end of flowering, while they should become shiny. Only semi-ripe fruits are suitable for collection. It should be borne in mind that unripe or overripe fruits are tasteless. There are 2 types of maturity, namely: biological (fruits are fully ripe, but tasteless) and technical (fruits are suitable for harvesting and eating). A pruner is used to cut the fruit, while leaving a two-centimeter-long stalk.
Eggplants are not suitable for long-term storage, in this regard, they must be used for food, or they can be used to prepare winter salads, as well as caviar, and it is also recommended to pickle or pickle them. Also, if desired, the fruits can be dried by cutting them into circles. Eggplants can be stored in a dark and cool (no more than 2 degrees) place for about 4 weeks. Also, eggplants can be folded in a box in one layer, while each fruit should be wrapped in a paper sheet. Then the container is transferred to a cool place where the eggplants can keep their freshness for some time. They can also be folded into a polyethylene bag that fits into the ventilation hole, or it can be stowed away in a dark and cold place. And the best place to store such fruits is the refrigerator shelf. Remember that they can only be stored in a dark and cold place.
BEST PROVEN VARIETIES OF EGGPLANTS AND SEEDING TERMS!
Types and varieties of eggplant
Today there is a classification of eggplant, dividing this culture into 3 subspecies: European, Eastern and Indian.
- Eastern subspecies... Most of the varieties included in this subspecies are early and mid-early. The bushes of such plants are not very tall, spreading or semi-spreading. Thin stems and shoots are purple-green. Small green ovoid leaf plates have purple petioles and veins. Not very large fruits have a serpentine, pear-shaped, spherical, crescent or cylindrical shape, as well as a dark purple color. The flesh of the fruit is white or light green with a little bitterness.
- Western subspecies... It includes late and mid-season varieties. Semi-spreading or closed bushes, they can be of medium height or high. The shoots are thick and green, with purple pigmentation at their tops, which is rather weak. On the surface of large leaf plates, elongated-ovoid, there is pubescence, they have a green color, in some cases there is a brownish tint in the region of the petioles and veins. The shape of relatively large fruits can be different, after they reach technical maturity, their color will change to purple-brown, purple-black, purple or dark purple. The pulp is colored white-green or white-yellow, it differs in varying degrees of bitterness.
- Indian subspecies... It is represented in culture quite widely, however, in the middle latitudes, the varieties included in this subspecies are not grown.
The most popular varieties of the western subspecies that are great for growing in mid-latitudes:
- Valentine... This early maturing variety is distinguished by its yield and resistance to tobacco mosaic. Black-purple fruits have a standard size of 5x26 centimeters. They have an elongated shape and taste great.
- Purple miracle... This hybrid is early, it is distinguished by its yield and resistance to wilting. Purple fruits weigh about 350 grams on average. The pulp has no bitterness and is light green in color.
- Czech early... It is a high-yielding early variety. Low bushes are compact and strong. The shape of the dark purple glossy smooth fruits is ovoid. The white-green pulp has no bitterness.
- Black handsome... This early maturing variety was created by Danish breeders. The height of the bush is about half a meter. The cylindrical fruits are very dark in color and weigh about 240 grams.
- Delicacy... Early variety. The bush reaches a height of 0.4 m. The dark purple fruits have white flesh without bitterness.
- Golden egg... This early hybrid is usually grown as an ornamental plant. The shape of the medium-sized fruit is similar to a goose egg.
- Donskoy... This variety is medium-yielding. The bush is of medium height and is medium spreading. The fruit is pear-shaped, weighing about 180 grams.
- Epic... This early variety is high-yielding and unpretentious. The fruits have an unusual teardrop shape of a dark purple color measuring 10x22 centimeters.
- Donetsk fruitful... This early ripe variety has a dark color with fruits reaching 15 centimeters in length and 40 mm in width. They weigh about 160 grams.
- Black Beauty... This early maturing variety has a high yield. The fruits are very large, weighing about 0.9 kg.
- Maria... Dark purple, not very large fruits have an elongated shape, they weigh about 220 grams. The fruits ripen very quickly, due to which their not very large size is compensated.
- Barbentane... The early variety is distinguished by its yield and a long fruiting period. Fruits are shiny dark purple.
- Nautilus... The fruits of this mid-early variety are dark purple and saber-shaped, weighing about 0.5 kg. The variety grows well in a greenhouse.
- Arap... The height of a vigorous bush is about 100 cm. The length of the fruits is about 25 centimeters, they are painted in a very dark shade of brownish-purple.
- Albatross... The variety is mid-season and high-yielding. The height of the bush is about 0.5 m. The pear-shaped fruits of a violet-blue color weigh about 0.45 kg.
- Solara... This early variety is distinguished by its unpretentiousness and productivity. Large fruits of dark purple color weigh about 1000 grams.
THE BEST VARIETIES OF EGGPLANTS !!!
Eggplant: growing and care in the open field
Nowadays, eggplant dishes on the table are by no means uncommon, but quite recently these amazing southern vegetables with delicate pulp and glossy skin were considered the privilege of regions with a mild climate, where locals affectionately call them "blue". In preparation, eggplants are simple and versatile: they can be fried, stewed, salted, pickled and, of course, used as the main component for a dish that has become the talk of the town - “overseas eggplant caviar”.
Modern selection has bred many varieties adapted to growing in the open field of the middle lane. It should be noted right away that only a patient gardener with special knowledge will be able to harvest the "blue" ones.
What does a plant look like
Chionodoxa (Chionodoxa) - a low-growing perennial, belongs to the Liliaceae family, represents the genus Scylla, was discovered in nature in the 18th century. The plant is bulbous, winter-hardy, with proper planting and care, it blooms in the open field in early spring. The stalks of chionodoxa can grow up to 12 cm in height, some specimens are able to stretch up to 15 cm. Basal, broad-lanceolate, grooved leaves of a dark green color appear simultaneously with peduncles. Their length varies from 8 to 12 cm. The brushes of the chionodoxa are loose, they consist of single bell-shaped flowers with 5-6 petals. Peduncles, depending on the variety, can differ in density, have a white, blue, blue, purple or pink color.
After flowering, chionodox forms fruits (seed pods), inside which are black seeds. The bulbs of the plant are ovoid, up to 3 cm long, 1.5 cm in diameter. On the surface they are covered with light scales. Each, with proper care, sprouts for two years. The roots fall off after one year of flowering.
The subtleties of growing
In order for eggplants to develop successfully and give a full harvest in greenhouses, they need to create optimal growing conditions and follow the rules of agricultural technology for this crop.
There are different types of greenhouses in which eggplants can be grown. The choice of design depends on the timing of growing.
- Greenhouse. Suitable for the warm season. It settles down right on the ground. Covering material - a film or other transparent material that well protects plantings from rain, wind and cold.
- Greenhouse. It is suitable for growing eggplants at any time of the year - provided there is heating. The greenhouse structures are built on a foundation and have a solid frame structure. Covering material - glass or polycarbonate. Inside the greenhouse, communications are usually carried out:
- irrigation system
- warm floors, etc.
Eggplant varieties grown in greenhouses have tall bushes (1-2 m), so greenhouses and hotbeds are made high enough.
Suitable forms of greenhouses:
General requirements for greenhouses and greenhouses:
- The ability to maintain an optimal microclimate and lighting. The optimum temperature is from +20 to +35 ° C.
A greenhouse is less stable than a greenhouse. It is a lightweight structure, so it is essential to ensure its stability, otherwise it can be damaged by strong gusts of wind. The best covering material for a greenhouse is agrofiber.
Land that has already been used in the greenhouse needs to be restored:
- remove the soil from the beds and lay in special sections - they can be located on the street
- Mix the depleted soil with organic fertilizers - humus, compost, etc.
- shovel the soil periodically.
The biological method of soil restoration takes 2-3 years.
Features of soil preparation for seedlings:
- Eggplants grow well in light, nutritious soils. With high acidity, and on heavy soils, root rot occurs in plants.
- Eggplant, like all nightshades, is very responsive to organics. The soil for seedlings can be fertilized with any organic fertilizer - manure, humus, compost.
- Fertilizers are applied to such a depth that it is closer to the roots.
- Ash, along with organic matter, is not recommended - such a mixture removes nitrogen from the soil.
Depending on the climate, the timing of planting seedlings in the greenhouse varies from April to June. In warmer regions, eggplants are planted in April, in cooler areas - 1-2 weeks later.
When determining the timing of planting in a greenhouse, gardeners are often guided by the date of the last frosts - after them, it should take about two weeks for the soil to warm up enough - up to + 15 ° C.
In heated greenhouses, seedlings can be planted much earlier than in greenhouses.
Eggplant is a sprawling crop that requires a certain amount of space for growth and development. The stem height of this culture is less than the diameter of the bush.
Recommended landing pattern:
- distance between holes - 45 cm
- disembarkation is done in rows or staggered
- row spacing - 60 cm
- planting depth - 15 cm.
Compatibility with other cultures
Greenhouses have a limited space and often have to plant different crops too close to each other. Such a neighborhood can be unfavorable - the yield falls, the incidence increases.
Favorable neighbors for eggplant:
- Bell pepper.
- Tomatoes and potatoes. They have the same pests with eggplants and suffer from the same diseases.
- Cucumbers. This culture shades the eggplant. Lack of light leads to the absence of ovaries. The high exactingness of cucumbers to moisture, can provoke root rot in eggplants.
In order to save space, directly in the spaces between the eggplant bushes, you can grow:
Planting eggplant seedlings in a greenhouse
Eggplant seedlings are watered 1-2 hours before transplanting so that the seedlings are easier to remove from the planting containers. It is necessary to take out the plants with a clod of earth, trying not to damage the roots. Transplant starts in the evening.
The procedure for planting seedlings from separate glasses:
- In greenhouse beds, make holes 20 cm deep.
- Throw a handful of humus and ash into each hole.
- Pour 2 liters of water into each well, in which pre-dissolve 2 crystals of potassium permanganate - the solution should be light pink.
- When the water is absorbed into the soil, place the seedling in the hole. Do not try to deepen the plants too much so as not to damage the roots. Embed the necks of the seedlings by 1 cm.
If the seedlings were grown in peat pots, then they are planted in the ground together with the "container". The pot is placed in a hole, the soil around is compacted and watered - the plants do not receive any stress during transplantation.
Planting eggplant seeds in a greenhouse
Before you start growing eggplants in a greenhouse, you need to sow seeds for seedlings. If you have a greenhouse, then there is no need to grow seedlings at home in glasses, you can sow them directly into the ground.
Using stencils-lattices, seeds are sown directly to the places in which they will grow.
- Place a grid stencil with 6x6 or 8x8 cm cells on the ground.
- Place seeds in the center of the cells. Embed them 0.5 cm into the ground.
- Grown plants do not have to be dived or transplanted.
Errors when planting and growing seedlings
Seedlings grow poorly, roots are weak and damaged
- planting in acidic soil or using ordinary heavy garden soil
- the seeds were not sorted or processed before planting. If the seeds are old and have been stored for more than 4 years, then they could dry out and their germination energy decreased.
Seedlings grow vigorously, but flower buds do not form
Possible reason: half-decomposed compost or manure was placed in the seedling soil, or overfed with nitrogen fertilizers.
The plants are stretched out
Reason: insufficient lighting.
The seedlings withered and died
- being in a cold room, near a frosty window or in drafts
- planting unhardened seedlings in the ground
- seedlings are planted early in the ground. Sunny days and warm air are not the main guidelines for starting planting. The soil should still warm up, and the temperature in it rises more slowly. As a result, the roots do not work, they cannot absorb food from the cold earth.
After transplanting to a permanent place, the growth of eggplants stopped
Possible reason: the seedlings are deeply buried. Eggplants, unlike tomatoes, do not grow additional roots from the stem.
Some of the leaves of the seedlings have fallen
Possible Cause: Sunburn, plants were not protected from the sun.
Rot appeared on the seedlings, buds and flowers fall off
- high soil and air humidity
- thickened fit. This led to shading and disruption of air exchange.
Eggplants are delicious and healthy vegetables. They improve heart function, lower blood cholesterol levels, increase immunity and even, thanks to the presence of nicotine, reduce smoking dependence. Try to grow eggplants yourself, treat yourself and your loved ones with delicious and healthy vegetables!
You can find out tips from experienced gardeners about sowing and growing eggplant seedlings by watching the video.