Tomatoes in the greenhouse: growing, planting and care, diseases and pests
Sadly, but summer passes quickly, and the time comes when nothing grows in the garden. You can, of course, make preparations for the winter - marinades, pickles, preserves, but canned food cannot replace fresh vegetables and fruits, especially in early spring, when the body suffers from vitamin deficiency. And how good it is that our ancestors came up with the idea of growing our favorite crops in greenhouses. You can cultivate cucumbers and tomatoes in a greenhouse not only for your family, but also for sale.
We will tell you about how to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate or from other materials, how to get a crop of greenhouse tomatoes by a certain date, when to pick tomatoes in a greenhouse, which varieties of tomatoes for a greenhouse are better to grow, how to regulate the fruiting of tomatoes in a greenhouse and much more. in this article.
Features of growing tomatoes in a greenhouse
Besides the fact that you will have early vegetables on your table, growing tomatoes in a greenhouse also has the advantage of a richer harvest than in the open field, due to the protection of plants from frost and precipitation. But in order to create optimal conditions for the growth and development of tomatoes, you need to properly equip the greenhouse and prepare the soil.
A tomato greenhouse can be film, glass or polycarbonate, and each of these materials has its own advantages and disadvantages. And yet, from our point of view, a polycarbonate greenhouse is preferable to glass or film. The greenhouse frame is best made of aluminum because it is lightweight and does not rust.
Tomatoes need a lot of light, and when choosing a place for a greenhouse, this must be taken into account, because if the lighting is weak, you will have to plant bushes at a considerable distance from each other to avoid shading, which means that you will have fewer tomatoes or you will have to make a large greenhouse ...
Those growers who want to grow tomatoes all year round should equip the greenhouse with a heating system - electric, gas, air or steam. The cheapest will cost a stove heating - a boiler that is heated with wood. Gas heating involves constant ventilation of the greenhouse, while electric heating will cost more than any other heating.
When it comes to watering the tomatoes, it is best to install a drip system using tape or leading a drip to each plant. Special controllers can regulate irrigation automatically.
It is very important to equip the greenhouse with good ventilation, so it is advisable to make several large vents in it, opening which you can save the plants from stuffiness and contribute to their successful pollination. Usually the vents are located at the top and bottom of the greenhouse.
If you already have a greenhouse, and it is more than one year old, you should disinfect the room before planting tomatoes. Wood-framed greenhouses are fumigated with sulfur. To do this, in the greenhouse, all the cracks and holes are sealed, metal sheets are laid out on the floor, sulfur mixed with kerosene is placed on them and set on fire. In a tightly closed greenhouse, sulfur should smolder for 5 days, destroying harmful insects, fungi, bacteria, mold and other infections.
In greenhouses with a metal frame, sulfur cannot be burned, since it causes corrosion of the metal, therefore, disinfection is carried out by treatment with a solution of bleach: 400 g of bleach is dissolved in 10 liters of water, infused for 4-5 hours, the greenhouse is sprayed with a chlorine composition from the inside, and then tightly closed room for 2-3 days.
After processing, the greenhouse is well ventilated and thoroughly cleaned with brushes. The metal parts are poured over with boiling water, and the wooden parts are wiped with a solution of copper sulfate.
Growing tomato seedlings from seeds
Sowing tomato seeds for seedlings
Tomatoes are grown in seedlings. You can sow tomato seeds for greenhouse seedlings at home, or you can immediately grow seedlings in a greenhouse. The optimal period for sowing seeds for seedlings is from early February to late March: late varieties are sown in February, mid-ripening in March, and early varieties - at the end of March. Before sowing, tomato seeds must be processed. Pelleted (brightly colored) seeds do not need to be processed - they are already ready for sowing.
Undrained seeds are immersed for 20 minutes in Fitosporin-M solution prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions, after which they are placed in a cloth bag and immersed in a growth stimulator solution for 20 minutes (a quarter teaspoon of sodium humate powder is diluted in 1 liter of water). Then the seeds are sown into light, loose soil - a ready-made mixture from a store like "Living Earth" or "Tomato and Pepper". Humus or turf soil is also suitable for growing tomato seedlings.
In the soil, grooves are made with a depth of 1-1.5 cm at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other, they are spilled with warm water, the seeds are laid in them with a step of 1.5-2 cm, they are sealed, covered with film or glass and placed in a light a place. The box must be installed on a support so that air can penetrate to the root system of the seedlings from below. The room temperature at this stage should be 22-24 ºC.
Growing tomato seedlings in a greenhouse
Under optimal conditions, tomato seeds germinate within a week, and with the emergence of seedlings, the cover from the crops can be removed. The first three weeks, the seedlings grow very slowly, the next 15-20 days, the growth of the leaves of the seedlings is noticeably accelerated, and after 35-40 days from the moment the seedlings emerge, the seedlings reach a decent height and significant leaf size. Now the main task is to prevent the seedlings from stretching too much, and for this you need to organize maximum lighting for it. In addition, crops should be rotated 180 º every day - the illumination of the seedlings should be uniform.
As for the temperature of the content, the first week after emergence, it is maintained at 16-18 ºC in the daytime and 13-15 ºC at night, and then increased to 18-20 ºC during the day and 15-16 ºC at night. This temperature regime is maintained until 2-3 true leaves develop on the seedlings.
During this period of time, the seedlings are watered only 2 or three times - in low natural light in March, moderate watering does not allow the seedlings to stretch too much. The first watering is carried out as soon as shoots appear, the second time in a week or two, and the third one - three hours before the pick. The seedlings are moistened under the root with water at a temperature of 20 ºC.
Before planting in the greenhouse, the seedlings are not fed. When the seedlings grow 2-3 true leaves, they are dived into pots 8x8 cm in size, filled with the same soil mixture as for sowing seeds, and then watered with a solution of potassium permanganate, dissolving 0.5 g of the drug in 10 liters of water. During a dive, sick and too weak seedlings are discarded. If the seedlings have managed to stretch too far, you can deepen their stem a little, but not to the very cotyledonous leaves.
The first days after transplanting, the seedlings are kept at a temperature of 20-22 ºC during the day and 16-18 ºC at night, and when it takes root, you can lower the daytime temperature to 18-20 ºC, and the nighttime temperature to 15-16 ºC. Watering is carried out once a week.
Two weeks after the pick, the first feeding of the seedlings is carried out - a tablespoon of Nitrofoski is dissolved in 10 liters of water. Fertilizer consumption is one glass of solution for two plants.
If there is a tendency towards stretching or overgrowing the seedlings, after 3-3.5 weeks, transplant the seedlings into pots 12x12 or 15x15 cm in size, trying not to deepen them during transplantation. Immediately water the seedlings with 22 ºC water, and then water no more than once a week. Transplanting inhibits the growth of seedlings and promotes the development of a strong root system in seedlings. After two weeks, feed the seedlings with a solution of 1 tablespoon of superphosphate and the same amount of Signor Tomato fertilizer in 10 liters of water at the rate of one glass of solution for each seedling.
And after another two weeks, feeding is carried out with a solution of a tablespoon of Nitrofoska in 10 liters of water at the rate of 1 glass per plant. Top dressing is combined with watering the seedlings. If the soil in the pots has settled, add some soil mixture to the seedlings.
In April-May, the seedlings begin to harden, opening the window for a short while in the room. Every day the duration of the hardening session is increased, but in no case do not allow drafts to form in the room. On warm days, seedlings can be taken out on the balcony for a couple of hours. Seasoned seedlings take on a bluish purple hue. Make sure that the soil is moist during hardening sessions, otherwise the seedlings will wither.
Planting tomatoes in a greenhouse
When to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse
By the time the seedlings are transplanted into the greenhouse, they should reach a height of 25-35 cm, they should have from 8 to 12 developed leaves and one or two formed inflorescences. The best seedlings are considered to be those that are 50 days old. 2-3 days before planting, 2-3 lower leaves are removed from the seedlings, leaving hemp of 1.5-2 cm in length from them. This measure reduces the likelihood of developing diseases, and also promotes good air circulation and allows the seedlings to receive uniform illumination.
In glass heated greenhouses, seedlings are planted at the very end of April or early May, in greenhouses without heating, but with an additional film coating - in the first decade of May, in cold greenhouses without additional shelter - in the second decade of May, and under a film covering in open ground - at the very end of May or early June. The main condition that must be observed: the soil temperature in the beds at a depth of 20 cm should be at least 13 ºC, and the air temperature - within 20-25 ºC.
Soil for greenhouse tomatoes
It is advisable to change the soil in the greenhouse every five years - during this period, despite the applied fertilizers, the soil is greatly depleted. At the same time, in each off-season, the soil should be disinfected with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate or dolomite flour at the rate of 50 g per m².
The beds for early tomatoes are prepared in the fall. You can lay additional insulation under the ground - lay a layer of pine needles, sawdust or straw 10 cm thick, place a ten-centimeter layer of compost on top, and only then lay the ground. The optimal height of the beds is 30-40 cm. For growing tomatoes, humus or sod soil is suitable, into which, for digging for 1 m², add 3 tablespoons of double granular superphosphate, one tablespoon of potassium magnesium and potassium sulfate, a teaspoon of sodium nitrate or urea and one and a half glasses of wood ash.
In loamy or clayey soil, in addition to the specified fertilizers, it is advisable to add one square meter of sawdust, humus and peat per bucket. The peat soil is improved by introducing, in addition to fertilizers, for each m² a bucket of sod land, humus, small shavings or sawdust and half a bucket of coarse sand.
How to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse
Low-growing early ripening varieties of tomatoes, formed in 2-3 stems, are planted in a checkerboard pattern, observing the distance between the bushes 35-40 cm with row spacing 50-55 cm wide.
Determinant and standard species are planted at a distance of 20 cm between the bushes with a row spacing of 45-50 cm. Such a planting scheme will allow up to 10 bushes to be placed on one m².
Giant varieties, which it is desirable to form in two stems, are also better planted in a checkerboard pattern, observing an interval of 55-60 cm between the bushes, and 75-80 cm between the rows.
There is a universal scheme that will allow you to grow different varieties of tomatoes in the same greenhouse. Tomatoes are planted in two rows:
- the place of the first row is closer to glass or film. In the first row, with an interval of 35-40 cm, determinant early ripening varieties are planted, formed in one stem;
- in the second row, which is closer to the aisle, tall varieties are planted with an interval of 60 cm, formed into one stem. In the same row, superdeterminant standard species formed in one stem are planted with giants, placing them at a distance of 25 cm from each other. When a second shoot appears on these tomatoes, you need to pinch it, leaving only 2-3 leaves. While the giant varieties ripen, the standard varieties will already bear fruit.
Such a scheme will allow you to grow up to 50 early maturing plants, 40 determinant bushes and 20 giants in one season in a greenhouse.
Choose a warm, but not hot day, make holes about 15 cm deep and spill them with a solution of potassium permanganate at a temperature of 50-60 ºC (dissolve 1 g of potassium permanganate in 10 liters of water), spending 1-1.5 liters per hole. Instead of potassium permanganate, you can dissolve 0.25 liters of the Zaslon preparation in 10 liters of water and spend half a liter of this solution per well. Transplant the seedlings directly into the liquid mud along with an earthen clod, and if they ripened in peat pots, then plant the seedlings in the holes directly in them.
If the seedlings are overgrown, it is not necessary to lay them at an angle - this is a common mistake. It is better to dig another hole in the depth of the hole along the height of the pot or the earthy coma of the seedling. Place the seedling in the bottom hole and seal it up. After a couple of weeks, when the seedlings have already taken root in the lower hole, it will be possible to cover the upper one with soil.
Seedlings are planted in such a way that the inflorescences of the seedlings are turned into the passage, then the fruits, when ripe, will not be shaded by leaves. After planting, dig small holes between the seedlings, into which it will be convenient to apply fertilizing in the form of solutions, compact the soil around the seedlings and mulch the surface of the bed.
Greenhouse tomato care
How to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse
It is better not to disturb the tomato seedlings for several days, and after 5-6 days, you should carefully loosen the soil to provide air access to the roots of the seedlings. Simultaneously with the planting of seedlings, it is advisable to install supports on the garden bed, to which you will tie up the growing bushes. You can use pegs and trellises to tie up tomatoes.
As pegs, metal rods, rebar trimmings, small-diameter plastic pipes or wooden slats are suitable. The length of the pegs should exceed the bush by 25-30 cm - it is to this depth that the stakes are driven into the ground. Place the stakes next to the stem. The garter begins as the bush grows.
For garters of giant varieties, it is better to use trellises, which can significantly save space - thanks to the trellises, 3-4 bushes can be placed on each m². Drive along a row of stakes 180-200 cm high and pull along them horizontally, every 35-40 cm, steel wire or strong twine, and, as necessary, tuck the growing tomato stems between these horizontal guides, like a braid. Growing tomatoes on trellises allows you to leave side shoots for development, so the yield of the bushes increases.
The first pinching is carried out before planting seedlings in the ground or immediately after it - the lateral processes are broken off, leaving hemp 2-3 cm high on the bush, but in no case are they cut off in order to prevent infection of plants with viruses or fungi. Stepson tomatoes in the morning, when the shoots break off more easily. If you are sorry to throw out your stepchildren, place them with the broken end in water, and in a few days you will have seedlings with roots that can be planted in the garden.
In general, pinching tomatoes in a greenhouse should be carried out once a week. After pouring the fruits, remove all the lower leaves from the bushes so that the stems remain bare - this is done to improve ventilation and reduce moisture, which leads to the development of putrefactive processes.
The optimum air temperature for tomatoes in the greenhouse is 20-25 ºC during the day and 16-18 ºC at night. When the fruits begin to pour, the temperature should be in the range of 24-26 ºC during the day, and 17-18 ºC at night. It is desirable to maintain the air humidity in the greenhouse at the level of 60-65%. Regular airing is also a mandatory measure for caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse, this procedure is especially important during the flowering period - there should be no condensation on the film during this phase of tomato development. Waterlogging of the soil makes the fruits watery and sour, reducing their fleshiness.
In order for the ovaries to appear in the greenhouse, the tomatoes must be pollinated artificially, since the bees do not live in the greenhouse. On a sunny day, the brushes are slightly shaken, and immediately after that, in order for the pollen to germinate on the pistil, you need to spray the flowers and soil with water through a fine spray, and after two hours to lower the air humidity, you need to open the window in the greenhouse.
Watering tomatoes in a greenhouse
After planting, the tomatoes are not watered for a week and a half, so that they take root, and not stretch in length. However, the question of how often to water tomatoes in a greenhouse is the most important in growing this crop. The fact is that in different periods of the growing season of tomatoes, the frequency of watering and the amount of water consumed per unit area are different. For example, seedlings are watered sparingly, but often, while adult tomatoes are watered abundantly, but less often.
You can determine that it is time to water the tomatoes by the state of the upper leaves of the plants: if they curl, then urgent watering is needed. But when the tomatoes crack when ripe, it's a sign that you overdid it with watering. By the way, here is the answer to the question that many readers of the site asked - Why do tomatoes burst in the greenhouse?
So, before the start of fruit setting, watering should be frequent (once every 5-6 days) and abundant - a water consumption of 4-5 liters for each bush, and the soil should be moistened to a depth of 15-20 cm.And during the fruiting period, tomatoes are watered 2 -3 times a week, however, the water consumption is reduced to 3-4 liters per bush. After moistening the soil, it is advisable to ventilate the greenhouse, since with high humidity there is a possibility of the spread of late blight and other dangerous infections.
If your greenhouse is small, you can water it by hand using a hose or watering can. The water for irrigation should be not cold, so it is advisable to keep a two-hundred-liter barrel on the site, in which the water is settled and heated under the sun. Try to water the tomatoes so that the water flows only on the ground around the stem, since even a small drop on a leaf or fruit works like a lens under the sun's rays, leaving burns.
In a large greenhouse, it is more convenient and faster to use the drip irrigation system. Its installation is not very expensive, while its operation will greatly simplify the watering process and free up a lot of time for you. Drip irrigation of tomatoes has the following advantages:
- water is delivered directly to the root system of plants;
- water consumption is much less than with manual irrigation;
- the productivity of plants almost doubles;
- leaching and salinization of the soil does not occur;
- watering can be done at any time of the day, without spending any effort.
In very large greenhouses, automatic irrigation systems are installed for industrial use.
Watering can be carried out in the early morning, while the sun is not yet so active, but it must be borne in mind that at this time of day the water for irrigation may be too cold, and it is desirable that it be the same temperature as the soil. By the evening watering, the water has time to warm up, but at night the greenhouse is closed to avoid hypothermia, and in a closed room with increased air humidity after watering, there are risks of the spread of putrefactive phenomena and other infections.
If you water tomatoes in the daytime, then drops of water on the leaves, stems and fruits can cause sunburn. Learn all of these risks and design your greenhouse tomato irrigation regime with them in mind.
Top dressing of tomatoes in the greenhouse
Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse involves the introduction of three or four dressings into the soil per season. For the first feeding, which is applied three weeks after planting the seedlings on the beds, a tablespoon of Nitrofoski and half a liter of liquid mullein are dissolved in 10 liters of water, spending 1 liter of solution for each bush.
One and a half weeks after the first feeding, a solution of a tablespoon of complete fertilizer and a teaspoon of potassium sulfate in 10 liters of water is introduced into the soil at the rate of 5 liters per m². Two weeks after the second feeding, dissolve a tablespoon of superphosphate and 2 tablespoons of wood ash in a bucket of water and water the beds at the rate of 6-8 liters per m².
When the tomatoes ripen in the greenhouse, in order to speed up the pouring of the fruits, add a solution of one tablespoon of liquid sodium humate and 2 tablespoons of superphosphate in a bucket of water to the soil. Solution consumption - 5 liters per m².
Tomatoes in autumn in a greenhouse
To get tomatoes in the fall, until the very frost, they need to be planted in a greenhouse in the middle of summer. In order to grow tomatoes until winter, it is important to follow three rules:
- choose the right varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses - early ripening, with medium-sized fruits;
- plant strong seedlings in greenhouses;
- calculate the time for planting seedlings in the greenhouse.
We will tell you a little later how to choose the right variety of tomatoes for growing in a greenhouse. As for the preparation of seedlings, before planting seedlings in the ground in the middle of summer, you must make sure that they have a sufficiently developed root system. And in order to determine the timing of planting tomatoes, you need to count from the start of frosts predicted by forecasters in the reverse order 60-85 days. For example, if frosts come in late October or early November, then it would be right to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse in August, somewhere in the middle of the month.
Since tomatoes have to be planted in the greenhouse in the heat, they will need regular and abundant watering, at least for the first two weeks, after which you can proceed to the usual soil moisture schedule. Due to the fact that the young bushes will be in intense sun, it will be necessary to install screens with a shading grid or strip cover on the south and west sides. You can also use a less costly method, protecting the seedlings from the sun with old sheets or towels stretched over pegs.
Another method is used to obtain fresh tomatoes until late autumn: summer tomatoes are pruned to stimulate their new growth. In this case, it is necessary to thoroughly water the cut bushes and apply balanced fertilizers to the soil.
If you are going to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse in winter, when there is little sun, you will have to arrange additional lighting in the greenhouse, and this significantly increases the cost of production. Therefore, it is better to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter. We are often asked if it is possible to grow tomatoes and cucumbers in the same greenhouse, because cucumbers need high air humidity, besides, they are afraid of drafts, and tomatoes prefer dry air. If you do not have the opportunity to grow these vegetables in different greenhouses, then subject to certain conditions, you can cultivate them in one greenhouse, but this topic is already for a separate article.
Tomato pests and control in the greenhouse
Caterpillars on tomatoes in a greenhouse
Among the pests that oppress tomatoes in the greenhouse, caterpillars of gnawing scoops of various colors, from 30 to 40 mm long, are especially dangerous. They damage different plants, but tomatoes get more from them than other vegetables. Caterpillars do their dastardly work at night - they gnaw the petioles and leaves of tomatoes in the greenhouse. Scoop butterflies are lured by hanging jars of fermenting kvass around the greenhouse - the drink is diluted with water 1: 3 and a little yeast is added.
And how to deal with caterpillars on tomatoes in a greenhouse? Caterpillars can be harvested by hand, or plants can be sprayed with an infusion of wormwood or potato tops or biological preparations Agravertin and Fitoverm, although it is undesirable to use chemical preparations to destroy gnawing caterpillars.
Whitefly on tomatoes in a greenhouse
Sometimes troubles can be expected from a whitefly - a butterfly about one and a half cm long with a yellowish body and powdery white wings. Whitefly larvae, flat, oval, pale green, feed on cell sap, sticking to leaves. In places where the leaves are affected by whitefly larvae, a black bloom from a sooty fungus appears, and as a result, the leaves dry out and die.
You can destroy whiteflies by treating plants with a solution of 10 ml of the drug Phosbecid in 10 liters of water. Spraying is carried out early in the morning or after sunset in two stages with an interval of two to three weeks. Before flowering, tomatoes are treated with Soil liquid smoke.
Medvedka on tomatoes in a greenhouse
A polyphagous bear, reaching a length of 5 cm or more, can get into the greenhouse along with the soil. She makes a nest in the soil at a depth of 10-15 cm and lays hundreds of eggs in it. The larvae that appeared from them after three weeks are capable of causing serious harm to tomatoes. In the fight against the bear, use an infusion of hot pepper (150 g per bucket of water) or vinegar water, adding 2-3 glasses of table vinegar to a bucket of water. These compounds in the amount of half a liter are poured into the discovered bear minks. From chemical preparations, such as Thunder, Medvetox and Grizzly are effective.
Wireworms on tomatoes in a greenhouse
Wireworms, or click beetle larvae, are yellowish dense caterpillars that damage the root system of tomatoes and penetrate into the stem. In order to select all wireworms from the soil, you need to arrange traps: 3-4 days before planting the seedlings, make holes 12-15 cm deep in the beds and bury in them pieces of raw vegetables strung on sticks 15 cm long - potatoes, beets or carrots. Leave the tip of the stick sticking out of the ground - so it will be easier for you after 2-3 days to find a trap in order to remove the wireworms gathered in the hole and burn them.
The larvae are selected and destroyed also when digging the soil. Liming and the introduction of mineral fertilizers reduce the number of wireworms in the greenhouse soil. Of the insecticides, Bazudin powder is effective, which is mixed with sawdust or sand and dripped into the soil near the plants.
Diseases of tomatoes and their treatment
Why do tomatoes crack?
In the prolonged heat, cracks form on the tomatoes in the greenhouse, which makes gardeners worry, but this phenomenon has a physiological cause that has nothing to do with infectious diseases. Fruit cracking occurs as a result of a sudden change in soil moisture, when tomato bushes are watered too abundantly during a drought: a large amount of water quickly enters the fruit, the walls of the epidermis cannot withstand pressure and burst. Subsequently, the wounds dry out, and the tomatoes quickly turn red without increasing in size.
In order to avoid cracks in the fruits of tomatoes, it is better to water them less abundantly, but a little more often, and so that the soil does not dry out too quickly in the heat, cover the surface of the garden bed with a covering material. It is advisable to spray glass greenhouses outside with milk of lime in intense heat.
Phytophthora on tomatoes in a greenhouse
Tomato late blight is a fungal disease that more often affects plants in open ground, although there are troubles with late blight in greenhouses. Our website has already posted an article on how to deal with late blight both in open and protected ground, so we will not describe this topic in detail.
Tomatoes in the greenhouse do not turn red
Sometimes you can see that the underside of the fetus turns red, and the crown remains green, or at best yellow. Why don't the tomatoes in the greenhouse turn red? The main reason for this phenomenon is the lack of lighting due to the thickening of the planting. In dense tomato bushes, light cannot break through to all the leaves and all fruits, so you will have to deprive the plants of some leaves, primarily the lower ones. And deal with the side shoots - it may be necessary to re-pinch the tomatoes.
In the second half of July, stop feeding, since the plants will only increase the green mass, and the rate of fruit ripening will drop. In the stem at a height of 15 cm from the soil, make a through longitudinal cut of the stem 5-6 cm long and insert a chip into it so that the parts of the stem move apart - after this manipulation, the plants begin to consume less moisture and nutrition, and the fruits ripen faster.
Tomatoes turn black in the greenhouse
There are also several reasons why tomatoes turn black in the greenhouse. For example, this can occur due to the defeat of tomatoes with apical (or gray) rot, the development of which is provoked primarily by a lack of calcium, uneven watering and temperature extremes. Or due to the fact that late blight appeared in the greenhouse. The reasons for the blackening of the fruit can be the increased acidity of the soil or an excess of nitrogen in it.
What to do if late blight is the cause, you can find out from the article devoted to this topic, which is already on our website. Tomatoes are sprayed from top rot with a solution of a tablespoon of calcium nitrate in 10 liters of water, the affected fruits must be removed and destroyed, and, of course, mistakes in plant care must be corrected.
Tomato stains in the greenhouse
Why do spots appear on the leaves of tomatoes in the greenhouse? Due to reasons such as insufficient moisture, cladosporia, or brown spotting of tomato (we dedicated an article to this disease and posted it on the site), chlorosis, which most often affects seedlings, fusarium - a fungal disease in which root nutrition is disturbed as a result of them hypothermia or damage.
If the soil in the greenhouse is not sufficiently moistened, the upper leaves of the tomatoes begin to turn yellow and curl, and from the lack of nitrogen in the soil in the first half of the growing season, chlorosis develops, from which the tomatoes in the greenhouse turn yellow.
As for fusarium, this is a dangerous, but, alas, a fairly frequent disease of tomatoes, a sign of which is the appearance of yellowness on the leaves, often with a bluish tinge. Then the leaves lose their turgor and wither. If you expose the root system of affected plants, you will see a tangled ball of roots.
Yellowing of only the lower leaves indicates mechanical damage to the roots as a result of loosening the soil or replanting. But in this case, you should not worry: soon the plant will have new adventitious roots, and the leaves will stop turning yellow.
Large brown spots with concentric circles appear on tomato leaves as a result of macrosporiosis. Severely affected leaves die off. On fruits, spots appear in the region of the stalk. Fight macrosporiosis should be done in the same ways as with late blight.
But the most dangerous disease of tomatoes is mosaic - an incurable viral disease that manifests itself in the form of light and dark spots on plant leaves alternating in an intricate ornament. The affected bushes look depressed, the yield is sharply reduced, as a result, the tomatoes die. Sick plants must be immediately removed from the greenhouse and burned, and in order to avoid contamination with mosaics, the seeds should be etched for half an hour in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour before sowing for seedlings, and the grown seedlings should be watered with a solution of 1 g of potassium permanganate in 10 liters of water 2-3 times day, taking three-week breaks between sessions.
Why do tomatoes rot in a greenhouse
The cause of fruit rot is still the same gray, or apical rot. It manifests itself on the lower part of the green fruit as a watery spot, which, with the development of the disease, becomes dry, acquiring a gray-brown tint. Then a dense cracking crust forms on the spot.Very quickly, the top rot assimilates most of the fruit, affecting it with mold. But sometimes the fruits do not rot, but dry up, but it happens that the disease proceeds without pronounced symptoms, and that the bush is sick with rot, you will only learn when the tomatoes rotted from the inside fall to the ground. If the disease is not recognized in time, you can lose the entire crop.
The cause of the disease is a lack of calcium and a violation of the water balance, when at the external high air temperature in the cells of the fruit there is a lack of moisture. Therefore, you need to reconsider the irrigation regime and treat the tomatoes with a solution of calcium nitrate, diluting 40-50 g of the substance in 5 liters of water. And do not forget about top dressing: when brown spots appear on the fruits, add a solution of mineral fertilizer containing potassium and phosphorus to the soil. You can add an ash solution containing sulfur, iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus and zinc under the root, diluting 250 g of ash in 10 liters of water.
The fruits of tomatoes also rot from phomosis, or brown rot, which develops exclusively on the fruits, manifesting itself as a brown spot at the stalk. And although the spot is not very large, only 3-4 cm, the entire inner part of the fruit is exposed to rot. The disease affects both green and red tomatoes. To protect tomatoes from phomosis, disinfect the soil before planting seedlings, do not use fresh manure as fertilizer, do not abuse nitrogen fertilizing, collect and destroy diseased fruits, and treat the bushes with Zaslon or Fundazol preparations.
Another reason for fruit rotting is late blight, but you will read about it in an article that has already been posted on our website.
Collection and storage of tomatoes
Tomatoes have four degrees of maturity - green, milky, brown or pink, and full. You can remove red fruits from the bush, that is, fully ripe, or you can only slightly reddened, yellowed or brown fruits - if you put them in the sun, then within 10-15 days they will ripen and will not taste different from those fruits that are ripe on the bush.
Fruits taken in green can also ripen in the sun, but they will not be so tasty. If you only remove ripe tomatoes, the next ripening fruits will be smaller and lose their volume, so it is better to remove brown or pink tomatoes. Tomatoes are harvested every 2-3 days, and in summer and autumn, picking should be daily.
The timing of picking tomatoes depends on the variety, planting time, weather and growing conditions. First of all, remove ripe fruits together with the stalks and put them in boxes. Harvesting continues until the night temperature drops to 8 ºC, since fruits harvested at a lower temperature are prone to rotting, and you will not save those that you harvest when the night temperature drops to 4 ºC. Tomatoes removed from the bush and at an acceptable night temperature can rot, if they had time to overripe before the harvest, so try to do everything on time.
Put brown tomatoes and fruits of a milky degree of ripeness in a bright room, where the temperature can be maintained at 20-25 ºC and the air humidity at least 80%. Tomatoes are laid out in one layer and allowed to lie down for 10-15 days, regularly airing the storage - during this time the tomatoes should acquire full maturity.
Fresh tomatoes can be stored for 2-3 months, and sometimes even more, if you put ripe tomatoes in a box for 2 minutes in a bucket of water heated to 60 ºC, and then wipe each fruit dry. After such heating, the tomatoes are put into boxes in one layer, wrapping each fruit with a napkin or paper or sprinkling the tomatoes with sawdust or dry peat.
It should be said that early and mid-ripening tomatoes, usually grown in greenhouses, are not stored fresh for a long time, but they can be frozen and kept in the freezer, and before eating they can be kept in cold water for thawing for a while. You can keep frozen tomatoes in a box under the snow in your yard.
Types and varieties of tomatoes in the greenhouse
The quality of the fruit and the abundance of the harvest depend on which varieties of tomatoes you grow in the greenhouse. We invite you to understand the variety of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes and decide on their choice.
Good varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses are chosen for the following qualities:
- yields that can be low, high or very high. It must be said that the most productive tomatoes for greenhouses are hybrid ones, since they are much more resistant to diseases and changes in the environment;
- size and type of bushes: varieties can be determinant, that is, they grow to a certain size and do not require pinching, pinching and tying, semi-determinant, or semi-determinant, characterized by early ripening, short internodes, high resistance to diseases and a bush height of about 2 m, and indeterminate - requiring pinching, pinching and tying, otherwise they will grow constantly both in height and in width. The best indeterminate tomato varieties include Honey Spas, Midas, Scarlet Mustang, Pink Tsar, Southern Tan, Mushroom Basket, by mid-morning - Anyuta, Japanese crab, Simona, and determinant varieties - Ballerina, Riddle, Asteroid, Seagull, Eleanor, Pink Honey , Lady;
- ripening speed: tomato varieties are early ripening (variety Dina, hybrids Druzhok, Typhoon, Verlioka, Ilyich, Poisk, Semko 98, Semko-Sindbad), early ripening - Renet, Hurricane and Samara, as well as ultra-ripening;
- palatability - for example, sweet and fleshy or thin-skinned but juicy
- fruit size - according to this characteristic, varieties are divided into large-fruited (Dream, Monomakh's Hat, Mikado, Eagle Heart, Orange Miracle, Cardinal, Market Queen, Biysk Rose, Canadian Giant, King of London, Abkhazian, Black Sea and Russian Soul), small-fruited (varieties Italy, Sanka, Herringbone, Kaspar, Yellow Drop, Robot, Kubyshka, Countryman, Sugar Plum, Ventura, Cherry, Legend, Shuttle and Picket), varieties with medium-sized fruits, which include Peter I, Bulb, Slavic masterpiece and Brilliant, and varieties of the "cherry" type - Bonsai, Minibel, Yellow Cherry, Red Cherry and hybrids Zelenushka, Cherry Tomato and Golden Bead;
- resistance to diseases, pests and adverse conditions and frost resistance. In this category, the best varieties and hybrids are Blagovest, Intuition, Roma, Budenovka, Chio-chio-san, Erema, Kostroma, Evpator;
- keeping quality is an important quality if the harvested crop is intended for storage. The varieties Salahaddin, Akatui, Ivanovets, Krasnobay and Volgogradets have the best keeping quality.
The best varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses
As you can see, there are a lot of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes for growing in a greenhouse, so we offer you the most famous and cultivated more often than other varieties:
- Gondola - high-yielding mid-season indeterminate hybrid of Italian selection with dense bright red fruits of excellent keeping quality. The average weight of fruits is 160 g, but often there are those whose weight exceeds half a kilogram. The fruits of this variety are good for food, and for processing into juices and sauces, and for pickling and salting;
- Hurricane - a productive early ripening hybrid, the harvest of which can be obtained within 85 days after germination. The mass of fruits, suitable for both food and canning, 80-90 g;
- Major - indeterminate fruitful variety, resistant to diseases and the vagaries of the weather, with very sweet and aromatic pinkish fruits with dense pulp;
- Silhouette - mid-early fruitful hybrid, resistant to unfavorable conditions with slightly flattened rounded fruits of excellent quality;
- Pink king - mid-season, productive determinant variety with bright pink flat-round fruits;
- Long Keeper - a medium-sized productive late-ripening plant with large rounded fruits, reaching 300 g in weight and ripening already in maturation;
- Lyolya - a new early ripening, relatively fruitful hybrid with red tomatoes weighing over 100 g with sweet and sour pulp;
- Kokhava - a super-productive ultra-early maturing indeterminate hybrid, resistant to viral and fungal diseases, with flat-round pink fruits weighing up to 180 g. Fruits ripen 90 days after germination;
- Bersola - undersized determinant ultra-early ripening and fruitful hybrid, immune to diseases and unfavorable conditions, with dense elastic fruits that can withstand long-term transportation;
- Miracle of the earth - a tomato, popular with summer residents, since it has practically no drawbacks: a high-yielding, tall and early-ripening variety that is resistant to drought and temperature extremes, the sweet heart-shaped fruits of which reach 900 g in weight;
- Titanic - a fruitful and disease-resistant hybrid with pinkish-red fruits characterized by a high sugar content and excellent taste;
- Dina - mid-early, medium-sized (up to 120 cm) productive variety, resistant to drought and diseases, with medium-sized bright orange round and sweet fruits weighing 120-150 g with a high carotene content;
- Moneymaker - also popular among summer residents, an early-ripening universal fruitful variety that is immune to diseases and gives light red, juicy and smooth fruits weighing about 100 g;
- Honey drop - an undemanding medium-early variety with honey-colored fruits, egg-shaped, weighing up to 30 g;
- Bull heart - a classic high-yielding variety for summer residents, giving fleshy juicy fruits weighing up to 300 g. The variety has several forms, the fruits of which differ in color - red, yellow and almost black;
- Samara - a variety with unlimited shoot growth and large sweet rounded fruits weighing up to 90 g, which are good both for salads and for canning.
Self-pollinated tomato varieties for greenhouses
Tomatoes are self-pollinated plants that do not require insect intervention for the formation of ovaries. But in order to form more ovaries, it is better to help tomatoes. The following techniques improve the pollination process in a greenhouse:
- manual pollination - you need to take a brush or toothbrush and touch it to the tomato flowers one by one;
- use of a fan directed at plants for pollination - the air stream will transfer pollen from the stamens to the pistil and from one flowers to others;
- shaking plants;
- attracting bees and other pollinating insects to the greenhouse by growing honey plants next to tomatoes;
- regular airing of the greenhouse, as the wind also carries pollen.
Since pollen on flowers ripens at night, it is better to carry out pollination procedures in the morning. A pollinated flower differs from a non-pollinated flower in its petals bent outward.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Solanaceae
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Fruit Garden Plants Solanaceous Plants on P Tomatoes
Follow the instructions and the hybrid tomato "Ivanych f1" will surprise you with abundant fruiting in the garden or in the greenhouse
Modern tomato hybrids are very popular among gardeners, because they give a rich harvest, are resistant to temperature extremes and diseases. One of these varieties is Ivanych F1, bred by Siberian breeders. If you follow all the necessary instructions and rules for growing, the result will not be long in coming.
The article contains all the necessary information about the hybrid, which will be useful to the gardener: characteristics, features of cultivation and agricultural technology, reviews of summer residents.
Planting medium-sized tomatoes
Medium-sized tomatoes are planted at a distance of 55 cm between plants and 70-80 cm between rows. It is permissible to slightly change these parameters, taking into account the variety. If you create ideal conditions for plants, you can get 7-8 kg of fruits from one bush! A visual diagram will help to correctly place crops in a greenhouse or open field.
The nuances of growing in open ground and in a greenhouse
Growing the variety in question in greenhouse conditions practically does not differ from cultivation in the open field. The only thing is that plants can be planted in a greenhouse 1-2 weeks earlier, since the soil warms up faster here.
The cultivation method does not affect the taste of tomatoes. Both greenhouse fruits and those that have grown in the garden taste great.
There is an opinion that the fruits obtained in greenhouse conditions are slightly larger. For this reason, greenhouse tomatoes must be tied up.
How to care for tomatoes in polycarbonate greenhouses
Growing tomatoes, including in a greenhouse, requires knowledge of many nuances. It is necessary to properly prepare the soil and plant the seedlings on time, make every effort so that the tomatoes do not crack during the growth and ripening process. Therefore, it is important to know, tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse: planting and care should take place correctly.
How to prepare a greenhouse
If the gardener has installed a polycarbonate greenhouse on his site, then the amount of work on its preparation will be small in comparison with other types of greenhouses. It is imperative to wipe the walls, check how correctly the ventilation systems work after winter. It's all.
Compared to a film construction, a polycarbonate greenhouse is perfect for trouble-free growing of tomatoes. In film constructions, the difference between day and night air temperatures at the end of spring will be felt. So, in many cases, the film will need to be insulated. At the same time, a distance of two centimeters must be left between the layers of the film: this will protect the structure from cold getting inside.
Important!If there is no ventilation system in the greenhouse, then it is imperative to make it for the correct and successful cultivation of tomatoes of any kind. Tomatoes require high-quality and regular airing. The easiest way: organizing vents on the sides and roof. Ventilation, even consisting in conventional ventilation, will significantly increase the yield of tomatoes.
Choose the right soil
In polycarbonate greenhouses, as in any other type of greenhouse for growing tomatoes, the correct preparation of the soil will be a special point. The more fertile the soil, the faster the plant will be able to develop, and its productivity will increase.
The preparation of the soil in the greenhouse begins with the removal of the top layer of 10 cm. Most often, it is at this depth that spores of fungi and harmful microorganisms are located that can harm the growth of tomatoes. Further, the soil is disinfected, for which a solution of copper sulfate is used (take a tablespoon of sulfate for 10 liters of water). If we consider a photo of tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse (planting, care), then you can pay attention that for normal flowering and fruiting, you need to add fertilizer to the soil.
What fertilizers for tomatoes to use in a polycarbonate greenhouse:
- For loamy, clayey soil, peat and sawdust, humus are used. Additional components will make the earth quite loose, air will flow freely to the roots
- Peat will need to be weighted with turf, sawdust or humus. You can add some coarse sand
- Chernozem also needs to be diluted, you can use sand or humus
In addition to additives, the soil must be fertilized. You can use superphosphate, saltpeter, wood ash.
When and how to plant seedlings
Seeds for seedlings are selected large and strong. We considered in detail how to grow good seedlings in a separate thematic article.
Important! For polycarbonate greenhouses, tomato seedlings should be planted in the last days of February or the first decade of March.
The seedlings must be 25 cm tall and 60 days old to be planted in greenhouse soil.If you hurry, you can harm the root system. The plant should be planted vertically, covering it with earth to the first leaves. When the bush takes root, then the hole can be filled up with earth. The first watering is carried out only 12 days after planting the plant in the greenhouse.
Important! It should be extremely carefully observed in the process of adapting seedlings for tall varieties. It is necessary to leave a distance of at least 60 cm between the tomatoes. A dense planting will reduce the yield of each bush and will not allow the plant to develop normally: it will simply not have enough space.
What rules of care to follow:
- Timely watering
- Pickling, if required by the selected variety
- Loosen the soil
- Ensure constant weeding
- Timely fertilization
- Protection against diseases and pests
If at least one of the above points is taken carelessly, then a good harvest can simply not be expected. If you make a drip irrigation system in the greenhouse, then the tomatoes will always receive a sufficient amount of moisture. You can use straw as mulch, which will help to do loosening and weeding as rarely as possible.
As for which tomatoes to plant in a polycarbonate greenhouse, you can choose any varieties for greenhouses. More details can be found on the pages of our site. For example, varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses in the Moscow region can be found in a large assortment and described in this article.
Growing tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse is not as troublesome as in other types of greenhouses. But it still requires a structured approach and knowledge of the matter. Then each bush will delight you with the maximum amount of ripe, tasty and beautiful fruits.
Advantages and disadvantages
The main advantages of the Casanova tomato variety include:
good taste of ripe fruits
the harvested crop tolerates transportation at any distance
under appropriate conditions, the harvested fruits can be stored for up to 4 months
early ripening of tomatoes Casanova
Among the disadvantages, it should be noted that the variety is not highly resistant to a number of diseases and attacks of some pests.
Recommendations for growing tomatoes in a greenhouse: planting and care
A modern greenhouse can be built from ordinary plastic film, glass or the latest durable material - polycarbonate. In any case, it must be of normal size for good growth and harmonious development of the tomatoes. Growing a vegetable like a tomato requires a competent approach, so it is important to provide for all the nuances. After you build your greenhouse from polycarbonate or other material with everything you need - comfortable lighting, a good ventilation system, that is, you have completed all the preliminary preparations for planting a tomato, you can proceed to the next stage.It is necessary to prepare the soil inside the greenhouse for the subsequent planting of tomatoes.
Experts do not recommend growing tomatoes in the same greenhouse for several years in a row. In this case, cultures can often get sick.
Once upon a time it was customary to plant tomatoes after cucumbers. But in recent years, these cultures began to get sick together with this method of planting - they are struck by an unpleasant ailment called anthracnose. That is why preparing for planting a tomato involves replacing the soil and processing it using a hot solution of copper sulfate - its temperature should be about 100 degrees. To prepare the solution yourself, you should take a tablespoon of this fertilizer.
Many novice summer residents often ask one question - is it possible to plant other vegetables along with tomatoes in the same polycarbonate or glass greenhouse? Experts say that other plants from the nightshade group get along well with them - for example, pepper. Therefore, planting tomatoes at the same time as pepper is perfectly acceptable. Since both of these crops - both peppers and tomatoes - require similar care conditions. Of course, planting peppers in the same room with tomatoes is best only when you can't do without it. In this case, the planting of pepper can be carried out both on a separate bed, and between the tomatoes.
The soil for peppers, like for tomatoes, should be loose and moist. There is even a special kind of pepper, which has an interesting shape and fruit color, which is called "tomato-like". It is also quite acceptable to plant tomatoes with eggplants. How to do this according to all the rules, the video at the end of the recording will tell you.
When there is a week left before planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, you need to carry out the stage of preparing the beds. Their width should be about 60 - 90 cm, and the height should be about 25 - 30 cm. Between the beds, you should definitely leave passages about 70 cm wide.For planting a tomato, it is customary to use clay or loamy soil after sawdust is added to it , humus and peat in equal proportions. For one square meter of land, you will need about three buckets of such a mixture.
In the case when peat is used instead of soil, humus, turf, sawdust and sand must be mixed with it in a ratio of 1: 1: 1: 0.5. After preparing the soil, it should be fertilized with double granular superphosphate - you need to take a teaspoon of the product, as well as wood ash - it will take a couple of tablespoons. The preparation of planting material for planting in a polycarbonate, glass or film greenhouse invariably begins with growing seedlings. It is best to sow seeds in special containers from February to the end of March. After about 50 days, when the shoot is about 30 cm long, the tomato seedlings can be removed from the containers.
The planting scheme largely depends on the type of plant and the characteristics of its bushes. For example, in low-growing varieties with an early ripening period in a greenhouse, three shoots are formed, so they are advised to plant them in two rows, observing a checkerboard pattern, as shown in the video. In this case, two bushes should be at a distance of about 35 cm from each other. As for the standard varieties, in which one shoot is well developed, it is permissible to plant them more densely. But at the same time, the distance between crops should not be less than 30 cm. Since tall varieties of tomatoes need more space, it will be correct to plant them at a distance of about 70 cm from each other.
Before planting plants in the ground, make sure that it has warmed up to a temperature of 15 degrees. It should also be remembered that the stems of the seedlings should not be too submerged in the soil, since in this case the tomato can go into the roots, and not into growth. The soil should not contain excessive amounts of nitrogen, as in this situation the foliage will grow excessively, not the fruit. After you have examined the seedling for damage, you can plant the future tomato in the ground. How to do it correctly, our video will demonstrate.
Hybrid varieties are best suited for greenhouse cultivation. They should be planted in warm ground in the first half of May, when the height of the seedling stems already reaches 30 - 35 cm. It is believed that after this age, the seedlings take root well in a new place and adapt to the proposed conditions. As mentioned above, tall varieties are planted in a checkerboard pattern, but medium and dwarf varieties require a different planting method - in rows, while the distance between plants should be about 40 cm.Ungrown seedlings are planted vertically, if the plants are stretched out, they must be placed in prepared holes obliquely, tearing off the bottom sheets and sprinkling with earth. Pay extra attention to those seedlings that have outgrown. For her, a 12-centimeter hole should be made in the ground, in which another deeper hole is made, which coincides in height with the height of the pot in which the seedling is located. After a few weeks, the originally formed hole must be covered with earth.
After about two weeks have passed since planting vegetables, they will need to be fertilized for the first time. Such feeding should consist of mullein and nitrophoska - at the rate of a tablespoon of nitrophoska, half a liter of liquid mullein per 10 liters of water. Each bush should be watered with this solution, using a liter for each of them. After 10 days, you need to feed the crops again using potassium sulfate and a fertilizer called "Fertility". To prepare such a fertilizer, add a tablespoon of the product and a teaspoon of potassium sulfate to 10 liters of water. It is recommended to use this top dressing about three times a season. You can see the steps for caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse in our video.
Together with feeding the plants, caring for them also implies that crops should be watered in a timely manner and in the right amount. Remember not to water the tomatoes too much, as this can negatively affect the quality and taste of the fruit. Experts advise watering tomatoes every five days. Consider the fact that in the first ten days after planting, watering is also not desirable, since the crops have not yet had time to adapt to the new living conditions. When you take care of plants in a greenhouse, remember that the water temperature for irrigation should be around 20-22 degrees.
The approximate amount of water that plants need before flowering is 4 to 5 liters per square meter. During the flowering period, this amount increases to 10 - 13 liters. It is best to water your crops in the greenhouse in the morning. Proper care of vegetable crops also involves maintaining an optimal temperature regime inside the greenhouse. When the weather is sunny outside, the greenhouse should be about 20 - 22 degrees, with cloudy - 19 - 20. It is especially important not to allow sudden temperature fluctuations at night. The temperature during this period should be about 16 - 17 degrees before flowering.
After the crops bloom, the temperature should be 26 - 32 degrees. The lower limit of temperature during the flowering period is at least 14 - 16 degrees. After you have collected the first fruits, you can maintain the temperature in the greenhouse at 16-17 degrees. This can have a beneficial effect on the growth and ripening of tomatoes. Another important point of care is rightfully considered to be pruning of stepchildren - lateral unnecessary processes developing on the leaves. They should be removed regularly, and the bush itself must be formed from the main shoot, on which about five brushes are left.
About a month before the end of the growing season, you need to pinch the top. When the fruits ripen and begin to turn red, the lower leaves are removed. Pruning is best done in the morning. In the process of caring for tomatoes, do not forget about the prevention of various diseases. Black leg disease is very dangerous for seedlings. To avoid the appearance of this fungus, the soil is changed to a new one before planting crops in the greenhouse.
In order to prevent the development of late blight of leaves, the bushes are treated three times - a week after planting the seedlings, 20 days after the first treatment, and then after about a third of the brushes have bloomed. It is customary to process the bushes by means of "Barrier" and "Zaslon". The third treatment is recommended with a garlic solution.