Wisteria: planting and care in the open field, growing from seeds, photo
Flowers wisteria (Greek Glicinia - "sweet"), or wisteria (lat.Wisteria), belong to the genus of treelike climbing plants of the legume family, growing in subtropical regions and attracting attention with their fragrant, hanging purple inflorescences. The Latin name "wisteria" was given to the wisteria flower in honor of the professor of anatomy at the University of Pennsylvania Caspar Wistar. There are 9 known species of the genus Wisteria, but only Chinese wisteria and Japanese wisteria, or abundantly flowering, are grown as garden crops.
Planting and caring for wisteria
- Landing: sowing seeds in the ground - in early spring, for seedlings - in December, planting seedlings in the ground - in May.
- Bloom: from late March to late summer.
- Lighting: bright sun in the morning, then - diffused light or partial shade.
- The soil: nutritious, well-drained, slightly alkaline reaction.
- Watering: from spring to late summer - moderate: the soil in the trunk circle should be slightly moist all the time, and from mid-September watering is gradually reduced.
- Top dressing: during the growing season, once a week, alternately with mineral and organic solutions.
- Cropping: in the summer, in order to maintain the shape of the bush.
- Reproduction: sometimes by seeds, but more often by layering.
- Pests: clover mites, aphids.
- Diseases: chlorosis.
Read more about growing wisteria below.
The wisteria plant in nature is a woody deciduous liana with drooping branches, reaching 15-18 meters in height. Leaves of wisteria are odd-pinnate, pubescent in youth, up to 30 cm long, with the number of leaves from 7 to 13. Fragrant purple, lilac or white flowers are collected in drooping racemes up to 30 cm long. Wisteria blooms in spring, late March and can bloom throughout the summer.
The wisteria tree is in great demand in landscape design, it is grown in various forms - both as a liana, wrapping around the walls of a gazebo or a fence frame, and as a standard tree. Wisteria is also grown at home in a container way in the form of a tree, but still homemade wisteria is not as common as garden wisteria, so let's talk about growing wisteria in the garden.
Growing wisteria from seeds
Wisteria seeds are planted in late November or early December. Seeds of wisteria are sown on the surface of a soil mixture consisting of leafy earth (four parts), sod earth and sand (one part at a time), sprinkle with a thin layer of sand on top, sprayed with water from a spray bottle and, covering the container with glass to create a greenhouse effect, put in a dark warm (22-25 ºС) place, keeping the soil slightly moist at all times. Wisteria emerges from the seeds in 3-4 weeks, and after another week and a half it will be possible to transfer the seedlings to the light, organizing them protection from direct sunlight.
When the seedlings form two leaves, they are dived into separate containers along with a lump of earth on the roots and watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Seedlings dived into individual containers must be accustomed to the environment in which they will live. To do this, they need to be taken out to an unheated part of the house for a couple of hours a day or kept under a slightly open window, provided that there is no draft in the room.
You can sow wisteria seeds directly into the open ground in early spring, then the seedlings grow adapted to the habitat and subsequently delight with their endurance.
When to plant
Wisteria is planted in the spring, when the last frost has passed. All types of garden wisteria are cold-resistant, but it is best not to expose young plants to the risk of frostbite. Before planting wisteria, it is necessary to determine in which area it will grow better - wisteria is not an annual, and if you are interested in the quality of flowering, then keep in mind that it should be in the sun for half a day, so the sunniest place for planting is chosen and protected from gusts of wind, the soil is nutritious, well-drained and slightly alkaline.
How to plant
Wisteria seedlings are transplanted into pits 60x60x50 cm in size, having previously introduced mineral fertilizers into the soil at the site for digging at the rate of 25-30 g per square meter of planting area. Be prepared for the fact that wisteria will not show signs of life for a while - it grows for a long time, and in the first years it forms only long thin shoots. In general, you can see the beautiful flowers of wisteria grown from seeds only after 4-5, or even after 10 years.
Caring for wisteria in the garden
From spring to late summer, wisteria requires moderate watering so that the soil under it is always slightly damp, but by no means wet. If it is spring without rain, then you will have to water harder, because the buds may crumble, and you will not see the flowers for which the plant was planted. From mid-September, watering is gradually reduced.
In order for wisteria to bloom on time and abundantly, it is fed once a week during the active growing season, alternating liquid mineral fertilizers (Kemira-lux, for example) with organic ones (mullein infusion in a ratio of 1:20). It is useful to pour wisteria with chalk water once a season (100 g of chalk per bucket of water). When the flowers begin to fade, remove the faded inflorescences. In addition, you will have to prune dry branches, tie and guide the shoots so they don't fall and grow in the right direction.
Before the onset of winter, you need to sprinkle the root rosette high, remove the vine from the supports and lay it on the trunk circle, as is done with climbing roses, preparing them for wintering, and then sprinkle with dry leaves and cover with spunbond or lutrasil. You can not do all this, but if there is no snow in winter, wisteria can freeze.
When does wisteria bloom? The Chinese wisteria blooms at the age of three, the Japanese at the age of ten, so wisteria is a plant for those who can wait. Wisteria of Chinese varieties blooms since April, and all the buds open at the same time. Wisteria blooms profusely from May to June. Make sure that there is no excess nitrogen in the soil, otherwise the wisteria will grow greens, but will not bloom.
Prune wisteria to stimulate flowering and to form a plant. To form a standard tree, one strong shoot is chosen, and the rest are removed. If you grow wisteria as a climbing plant, then it is advisable to remove the abundantly growing side shoots so that the wisteria does not expend energy on overgrowing greens, but sends them to the formation of buds.
Pruning wisteria in spring is to remove the young shoots sticking out so that their foliage does not hide the flower clusters from view during flowering. In addition, a young lateral annual wisteria branch can produce an inflorescence this year only if you shorten it to 30 cm.
Formative pruning of the plant is carried out in the summer: the side shoots are cut by 20-40 cm, and at the very end of summer by another 10-20 cm. However, try not to get carried away with the process, otherwise you may deprive yourself of the pleasure of seeing the lush bloom of wisteria.
Reproduction of wisteria
We have already described in this article the propagation of wisteria by the seed method. It is worth adding that many of the sprouted and even grown seedlings may never give flowers - no one knows why this happens. But we have repeatedly told our readers that seed propagation is unreliable and it is much better to use vegetative propagation methods.
Wisteria propagates most easily by layering. To do this, in the spring, a one-year shoot is chosen, an oblique incision is made in the middle of its length, the shoot is bent and laid with an incision on a pot with a clay-sod substrate, the outlet is fixed in this position and added dropwise, leaving the top of the shoot free. It will be possible to separate the rooted cut from the mother plant only next spring.
In various publications they write that it is possible to propagate wisteria by cuttings or grafting on the roots, but I do not know anyone who could actually do this, but the layering took root in me.
Pests and diseases
Sometimes wisteria is occupied by aphids or clover mites. Aphids are destroyed with an insecticide, and ticks - with an acaricidal preparation. If wisteria grows in alkaline soil, chlorosis can affect it, from which its leaves turn yellow. In the fight against the disease, root feeding of wisteria with iron salts is used.
Types and varieties
Chinese wisteria (Wisteria chinensis)
Densely leafy liana up to 15-20 m in height. Leaves are odd-pinnate, large, pubescent at first, but eventually becoming smooth. Flowers in loose racemes up to 30 cm long, light lilac in color. The fruit is a pod up to 15 cm long. This species has a garden shape with white flowers (f. Alba) and a shape with double flowers (f. Plena).
Wisteria abundantly flowering, or multi-flowered (Wisteria floribunda)
It is colloquially "Japanese", since it comes from the Japanese islands - it differs from the Chinese in smaller size (only 8-10 m in length), larger leaves up to 40 cm in length and the number of leaves up to 19, a large number of inflorescences on the plant, and also in their larger sizes - up to 50 cm in length. The flowers themselves are smaller than those of Chinese wisteria, of a violet-blue hue; they bloom gradually, starting from the base of the brush. This species is more cold-resistant than Chinese wisteria. There are garden forms with white, pink, purple double flowers and a variegated form with variegated leaves.
In addition to these two most popular species, beautiful wisteria (Wisteria venusta), shrubby wisteria (Wisteria frutescens) and large wisteria (Wisteria macrostachys) are also known in culture, on the basis of which the Blue Moon wisteria was bred by American gardeners from Minnesota, capable of wintering in the garden even without shelter.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Legumes family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Shrub Information
- Information about Vines
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Flowering Shrubs Garden trees Lianas Plants on G Legumes (Moths)
Description of small petals or erigeron
Due to the large number of needle-like, reed petals, the flower has a middle name - small petals. "Erigeron" is translated from Greek as "early elder", which is due to the early maturation of the seeds.
The bushes are loose, spherical. Numerous shoots are soft, herbaceous, well branched. On average, the width and height of the bush is 40-60 cm. The greens have a rich dark green color.
Small petal flowering
The bush is evenly covered with flower baskets, single or collected in rare paniculate inflorescences. Multiple petals come in pink, white, blue, yellow, and other shades. Simple petals are arranged in one row, and double petals are arranged in several.
The flower has a lush yellow core. Baskets can be of different sizes: 2 or 4 cm in diameter. Small petal blooms all summer until October. Small pubescent seeds ripen quickly. The entire stem is covered with oblong leaves, the basal rosette is made up of more rounded leaves.
Varieties of wisteria
chinese, blooming with light shades of purple inflorescences up to 30 cm. Sometimes up to 20 meters, with a dense leafy crown. Flowering is observed throughout the summer. The fruits are beans with a length of 15 cm. This variety loves warmth and grows in the south of the Russian Federation. When pruned, it can be shaped like a small tree.
multiflorous (floribunda), with purple and blue inflorescences, abundant flowering. Plant length up to 10 meters. Brushes are half a meter in size. Flowering begins a couple of weeks later than Chinese, tolerates frost down to -23 degrees C °.
the next type of wisteria is "Beautiful" (Wisteria venusta) it is distinguished by increased decorativeness, since its flowers are double, they are white, pink or lilac in color. Grows up to 10 meters. The inflorescences are 20 cm in size, the same beans. Flowering occurs in May and ends in June.
shrubby wisteria blooms in blue and purple hues. Grows up to 12 meters, found in the Crimea. Convenient for container growing.
Japanese wisteria (Wisteria japonica) characterized by white flowers. The aesthetic properties are not as outstanding as in the previous species. It does not differ in resistance to frost either. It can be found in the Caucasus, near the Black Sea.
worth mentioning yellow wisteria... If other species are called rain and rain of flowers, then yellow wisteria is called "golden chains" or golden rain. According to experienced gardeners, this species is the last to bloom. The plant known as "Anagirolist bean", flowering with yellow flowing inflorescences, has a decent resistance to frost, but also unpretentious in the dry season. Presenting not very great demands on the condition of the soil, it can be a very perennial plant only on moist and fertile soil, without excess water. Loves the sun, blooms in May with inflorescences up to 40 cm, ending flowering in June, for about 20 days. Does not like the wind, because it is a deciduous plant. For sowing seeds, stratification is required (temperature change in the form of cold for 3 months).
Also, some hybrids are known that combine the properties of the two species.
Brief rules for growing wisteria
The table shows brief rules for growing wisteria in the open field.
|Landing||Planting wisteria can be done in spring or fall.|
|Lighting||For healthy growth, you will need a bright corner of the garden, where direct sun shines for at least 6 hours a day. In shady places, the vine will start to hurt.|
|Watering mode||In dry spring, the plant is watered abundantly, during growth, the volume of watering is slightly reduced, and by the beginning of autumn they stop altogether.|
|The soil||The soil for growing wisteria should be nutritious and light.|
|Top dressing||You can feed the plant systematically. If the bush was originally planted in nutrient soil, feeding is sometimes not carried out at all.|
|Bloom||Flowering usually begins in late March and lasts until summer.|
|Pruning||The bushes should be cut before they are fixed on the supports. All last year's growth is shortened by 2-3 buds.|
|Reproduction||Seeds, layering, cuttings.|
|Pests||Aphids, leafhoppers, clover mites, caterpillars.|
|Diseases||Chlorosis, powdery mildew.|
Growing wisteria at home
Wisterias are also grown at home in the form of a formed standard tree, similar to a bonsai. For home maintenance, the smallest and slowest growing varieties are chosen.
From November to February, the domesticated vine should be stored in a bright room with high humidity and a fairly low temperature of 6-10 ° C. Watering for this period must be stopped. From February, you can transfer it to a warmer room and gradually resume watering.
Wisteria growing at home
Keeping a plant in a warm place in winter can lead to its death. At the beginning of spring, young shoots should be pruned to 3-4 buds and a crown should be formed. Light-loving wisteria is best kept from the southern, sunny side. During flowering, it makes sense to feed with any fertilizer for flowering indoor plants.
Pruning should be done twice a year, guided by the same principles as when forming a standard tree in the open field.
Important! All parts of the wisteria plant are toxic to humans, pets, and livestock as they contain two toxins: lectin and wisterin. These substances can cause nausea and diarrhea if consumed in large quantities. Always wear gloves when pruning and wash your hands after handling wisteria.
The deadliest parts of the plant are seeds and seeds, so if you have children or pets, it is a good idea to remove these parts after the plant has faded. Eating the seeds does not immediately cause feeling unwell and worrying symptoms, so a child or pet may accidentally eat a lot. If the seeds are swallowed, an urgent need to consult a doctor.
A beautiful wisteria vine can be a real decoration of the garden or home. For successful cultivation, you just need to know a few of its features and follow the rules of care - and then the blooming long-liver will delight you for many years.