The beautifully flowering sprekelia plant, also called sprekelia, stands out for its spectacular graceful flowers. This evergreen bulbous plant is a member of the Amaryllis family. This genus unites only two species, namely: the magnificent sprekelia (Sprekelia howardii) and the most beautiful (Sprekelia formosissima).
The people also call this plant the Aztec lily. It comes from Guatemala and Mexico, and in European countries it began to be grown in 1593. An adult bush reaches a height of about 30–35 centimeters. Flowering begins in the spring months or June. At this time, a peduncle appears on the bush, at the top of which a beautiful flower of graceful shape opens up.
When the bush fades, the plant must be sure to provide a dormant period. In indoor culture, the lifespan of such a flower is 4 to 5 years. It has an average growth rate and is a perennial.
Brief description of cultivation
- Temperature regime... In the summer it is 20 to 22 degrees, and in the winter months it is warmer than 7 degrees.
- Air humidity... If the room temperature is 15 degrees, then the minimum level of humidity should be 50 percent. It is necessary to moisturize regularly.
- Illumination... Bright sunlight. For about 4 hours a day, the bush should be in direct sunlight.
- Watering... During the growing season and flowering, the substrate is moistened 1 or 2 times every 7 days. In winter, less watering is required.
- Soil mixture... It should be loose with a pH of 5.5–6.5 and well-drained. At the bottom of the pot there is a drainage layer.
- Fertilizer... Twice a month with a liquid fertilizer containing phosphorus and potassium.
- Transfer... 1 time in 2 years as soon as the bush fades. The onion should be planted to a depth equal to 2/3 of its height.
- Reproduction... Daughter bulbs and seed method.
- Care features... The appearance of foliage is observed after the bush has faded.
Sprekelia care at home
If you care for the room sprekelia correctly, then it will certainly delight the grower with its spectacular abundant flowering.
The appearance of the peduncle occurs around mid-March. Less commonly, this occurs in the first summer weeks. But for the bush to bloom, it needs stimulation. To do this, at the end of the dormant period, it is transferred to a warm and well-lit place. After the emergence of the sprout, the frequency of watering is increased. Sprekelia pleases with its flowering from 15 to 30 days.
When the bush fades, the peduncle should be removed, and a stump should be left with a length of 30 to 40 mm.
In the open field, such a flower is cultivated as an annual plant. Moreover, when grown in indoor conditions, its life span is from 4 to 5 years. In the warm season, the optimum temperature for sprekelia is 23 to 25 degrees, while in the winter months, make sure that the room is not colder than 18 degrees.
Protect the flower from sudden changes in air temperatures, as this can greatly harm it. In the warm season, the bush, if desired, can be rearranged on the balcony, and a suitable place for it should be protected from direct sunlight, precipitation and wind.
If the room has excessively low air humidity, then experts advise that you regularly moisten the foliage of the plant with well-settled warm water. Sprekelia grows and develops normally in urban apartments, but she needs to ensure the systematic wiping of the foliage and freeing it from dust.
The flower needs a large amount of bright light, while even the direct rays of the sun do not harm it. However, during the flowering period, the plant still needs protection from the sun's rays. In order for the leaf plates to grow evenly, the flower pot must be systematically rotated around its axis.
During the active growth of the bush, be sure to provide it with abundant systematic watering. To do this, take soft, non-cold water and pour it into the pan, after a while drain the excess liquid. With the onset of the resting phase, it is required to reduce the number and volume of irrigations. After some time, the substrate in the pot is stopped completely moistened.
Indoor sprekelia during transplantation, you need to replace the pot only if it becomes necessary. A rather narrow pot is more suitable for a plant: the distance from the bulb to the wall of the container should be no more than 30 mm. If you use a tight container for planting, then the spectacular flowering of sprekelia can be seen much faster. If you want the bush to grow as many daughter bulbs as possible, then choose a wider container for planting it.
A fertile substrate is suitable for a flower, while a high-quality drainage layer is necessarily made at the bottom of the container. In a specialized store, you can buy a ready-made soil mixture for decorative deciduous crops or universal. Before planting, sphagnum, perlite, pine bark, charcoal and coconut soil should be added to the finished substrate.
During the growing season and flowering, the bush needs regular feeding with a frequency of 1 time in 15 days. For this, a mineral fertilizer is used, from which a nutrient solution is prepared. It is poured into a tray, and then the container with the plant is immersed for a third of an hour (20 minutes). Due to organic fertilizers, rot appears on the bulb.
The flower is transplanted at the very beginning of spring. In this case, the bulb is carefully deepened by ½ part of its height, while trying not to injure the roots.
At the end of flowering, cut the peduncle at a height of 30–40 mm from the neck of the bulb. When the foliage of the plant has completely wilted, remove it and dig up the bulb. You cannot cut the roots!
The resting phase in sprekelia is observed in November – March. The container with the bulb is removed in a cool (below 17 degrees), dry and dark place, while watering is not carried out at all.
Sprekelia (sprekelia) rest period
Growing from seeds
To harvest your own seed from room sprekelia, you will need to manually pollinate its flowers. Seedlings obtained from seeds will not retain the varietal characteristics of the parent bush. The collected seeds must be sown within five weeks, otherwise they will not sprout.
Fill the container with the substrate and spread the seeds over its surface, cover them with a thin layer of soil mixture. Crops need high air humidity and warmth (from 22 to 25 degrees). When the third true leaf plate appears at the seedlings, they are dived into individual pots.
Reproduction by daughter bulbs
In an adult bulb, small daughter bulbs form at the bottom. For jigging, use bulbs about 30 mm in size with their own roots. Carefully cut the onion with a knife, treat the cut with crushed charcoal and place it in an individual container.
When growing homemade sprekelia with it, problems such as:
- Yellow foliage... The air in the room is excessively dry.
- Flowering has become more scarce... The bush needs separation.
- The leaves became faded and the flowers drooped... Too poor watering, overdrying of an earthen coma.
- The flowers turned into a dark shade... The room is too cool with high humidity.
- Stopping the growth of the bush... The plant needs urgent feeding.
- At first, the bulb grows intensively, and then the growth rate gradually slows down.... Perhaps pests have settled on the bulb.
- The foliage has become faded and has lost turgor... This is due to the regular stagnation of water in the substrate. Reduce watering frequency.
- The bulb does not grow... If you have planted the bulb correctly, then remove it from the substrate and feel it. The growable bulb is firm and firm to the touch. If within 6 weeks the sprouts have not appeared, this means that the onion can be thrown away.
- Lack of flowering... This may be due to the fact that:
- the plant was not provided with a normal dormant period;
- the potted substrate is depleted and the plant needs feeding;
- the bush feels a lack of light;
- the room is very cold;
- the roots of the bulb are damaged.
Pests such as thrips, scale insects, spider mites, aphids and mealybugs can settle on the plant.
SPREKELIA sem. Amarilis
Sprekelia - the flower of the knights
Shprekelia the most beautiful is a beautiful bulbous plant that can decorate any room. It requires uncomplicated but careful maintenance.Sprekelia is magnificent
This wonderful flower is not very popular, but this is only due to the fact that many people simply do not know about it. In appearance, the plant resembles a delightful orchid and fully justifies its name "Shprekelia the most beautiful". No wonder she was nicknamed the flower of the Templars and the lily of the Aztecs. The homeland of this plant is Central America; it was brought to Europe in the 16th century.
It is quite easy to grow this exotic flower at home. You just need to adhere to some of its features.
Description of indoor calla lilies
The leaves are large, glossy, from light to dark green, singly located on long stems, resembling a heart or a leaf of a marsh water lily. Width up to 25 cm, length up to 40 cm.
Blooms, releasing a long arrow-peduncle. The flowers are small, collected in an inflorescence - an ear in the form of a cylinder, wrapped in a sheet-blanket, that is, a bracts that look like a funnel. This leaf is often mistaken for a calla flower. It lasts a very long time - up to 4 weeks.
Traditional varieties have a white funnel leaf. In modern floriculture, many species have been bred with different colors. Photo of calla flowers proves their diversity and beauty of colors.
White calla lilies have powerful rhizomes, while colored ones have a medium-sized bulb. Depending on this, the care of plants is somewhat different.
Growing from seeds
This method of reproduction is rarely used, since it is complex and does not always end with success.
Important! Amaryllis grown from seeds loses the characteristics of the parent specimen and blooms only for 7 years. Seeds quickly lose their germination, so they should be planted immediately after harvest.
The seeds are obtained as a result of cross-pollination, which is carried out with a brush (carried over the flowers). Ripening occurs after 2-3 months.
Sowing is carried out as follows:
- The seeds are removed from the capsule.
- A drainage layer about 2 cm thick is placed in the holes.
- A nutritious soil mixture is poured on top (you can use the same as for the bulbs).
- The substrate is tamped.
- Sowing is carried out.
- There should be a distance of up to 1.5 cm between seedlings.
- The soil is sprayed with a spray bottle.
After planting, it is necessary to ensure that the ground does not dry out and does not become waterlogged.
Home care for hippeastrum
In practice, it was found that at home, the development of the hippeastrum directly depends on temperature and illumination. The full dormant period of this plant passes only when kept for 8 - 10 weeks without lighting, at a temperature of 10 - 12 ° C and very low soil and air humidity. It is very difficult to predict the flowering of a “resting person” in unsuitable conditions (short period of rest, high temperature, constant light) of the hippeastrum - it either blooms inadequately (small flowers, short peduncle), or misses flowering altogether. The emergence and rapid growth of peduncles after the end of the resting phase stimulates warmth (25 - 30 ° C) and light soil moisture, but not bright light. At a lower temperature, flower stalks develop more slowly, and a sharp increase in lighting and substrate moisture at this time even entails a stop in their growth, since the bulb begins to actively grow leaves. If the amount of light and soil moisture (regular watering) increase after the peduncle grows 10 - 12 cm, the plant blooms normally, although the leaves can grow at the same time. The duration of the flowering period in hippeastrum depends on varietal characteristics (non-double varieties bloom 1 - 2 days longer than double ones) and again on temperature: high (above 20 ° C) causes rapid growth of the peduncle and rapid flowering, and the relative coolness (16 - 18 ° C) slightly delays the flowering of charming flowers. After flowering, until the transition to dormancy, the optimal temperature for the hippeastrum is considered to be in the range of 18 - 22 ° C, but at the same time, during the active growth of leaves, the plant should receive the maximum possible illumination (protect from direct sun!).
An important condition in the maintenance of home hippeastrum is also regular feeding. In order to avoid decay, the bulbs of these plants are not recommended to be planted in large containers or even deeply buried, and nutrients from such a volume of soil are consumed very quickly. So that the bulbs are not very depleted and continue to form inflorescences normally, it is recommended to feed the hippeastrum with liquid fertilizers for flowering plants (for example, NPK in a ratio of 4: 6: 12) during the flowering period, and at the end of it for rapid growth of leaves - fertilizer for ornamental leaves (NPK in 7: 3: 6), and a month before the transition to the resting phase - fertilization with a minimum of nitrogen and a high potassium content (for example, 4: 4: 12). Such a balanced nutrition will provide both flowering and active growth of leaves (the formation of peduncles in the axil of every fourth), and an increase in the size of the bulb (since scales are formed from the bases of the leaves), and hence the full-fledged long-term development of the hippeastrum. Without regular feeding, the bulb will survive until the next transplant only due to the nutrients accumulated from the leaves, but they will no longer remain for flowering.
After analyzing the above information, we can conclude that care for the home hippeastrum needs to be organized and adjusted in accordance with the developmental phases in which its bulb is located.
1. Purchase an adult bulb.
All adult bulbs of hippeastrum that go on sale (in spring or autumn) are fully prepared for flowering, that is, they have passed a dormant period, so they should not be kept in complete darkness. For planting, you need to take a deep (15 cm), but not wide (3 - 4 cm more than the diameter of the bulb), a stable ceramic pot, fill it halfway with drainage and plant the bulb in a slightly damp permeable soil mixture, deepening only half. The soil mixture can be made up of sod land, river sand and humus or peat taken in equal parts. If the bulb does not look completely healthy, it will have to be healed first: cut off the damaged (rotten) areas, soak for half an hour in a fungicide solution (Maxim, Fundazol) and dry it for 24 hours. It should be planted, deepening only 1/4, into the substrate, in which humus should be replaced with a small amount of sphagnum. Such a planting will make it possible to monitor the condition of the bulb and, if necessary, carry out additional treatments (spraying), and if it recovers, the soil mixture can be poured to the usual level at any time. After planting in a wet (!) Substrate, the pot with hippeastrum should be placed in a shaded warm place and not watered until the peduncle grows to a height of 10 cm.If it is problematic to find a shaded place, you can limit yourself to a window sill, but the plant will have to be covered with a cap on top ( another pot).
Hippeastrum, ready to bloom, should be rearranged in a well-lit place (east or south-west window, bedside table next to the south window) and provide it with regular watering with the obligatory drying of the topsoil. You can start applying fertilizing to stimulate flowering already at this time, and not more often than once every 2 to 3 weeks. With the beginning of the blooming of the buds, a slight decrease in temperature can be organized for the hippeastrum, but after flowering for 2 to 3 months, it is imperative to keep it warm, water it regularly and feed it with fertilizers for ornamental plants. If the second and third peduncles appear, it is not necessary to limit watering (as in the case of the first peduncle), and so that the abundant flowering does not greatly weaken the bulb, one of them can be cut off (at a height of 5-7 cm from the top of the bulb) in the phase of a colored bud and prevent the formation of seeds on the remainder. Immediately after flowering, the bulb may feel too soft to the touch, as if empty, but with regular feeding for 2 to 3 months it will restore normal elasticity and even increase in size.
If after 2 months in the mode of "active leaf growth" the home hippeastrum itself does not begin to prepare for the resting phase (the growth of leaves has stopped, the old ones gradually turn yellow), it can be "forced" to do this. To do this, you first need to stop watering, move the pot with the plant to a less illuminated place, and with the beginning of yellowing of the leaves, slightly bend (crush) them in order to accelerate the outflow of nutrients. After that, his "rest" can be organized in several ways:
- if lesions are observed on the bulb, after the leaves die off, it should be immediately treated (cut out the damage, soaked in a fungicide, dried) and stored in dry sawdust (wrapped in newspaper) in a dark cool (10 - 12 ° C) place, periodically carrying out control examinations and, if necessary, treatment
- if the plant has a baby, it must be planted. A healthy mother bulb at the same time can be transplanted into a new soil mixture and the pot with the planted bulb can be stored, for example, in the basement
- a bulb without children does not need to be transplanted / dug up at all (if, of course, it is healthy), and at the end of the dormant period, you can either transfer it or replace the top layer of soil in the pot.
If during storage the temperature does not rise above 10 ° C, watering the bulb during this time is not required, otherwise periodic spraying of the substrate may be necessary. At least two and a half months later, the bulb is planted (transplanted), the pot is placed in a warm, dimly lit place, slightly moistened the soil, stimulated the appearance of a peduncle, etc. according to the above described scheme. Please note: with sufficient nutrition and timely "rest" in the cool and dark, home hippeastrum willingly blooms twice a year, throwing out 2 - 3 peduncles at all without "damage" to the health of the bulb. In the case when it is possible to provide a full-fledged rest to the plant only in winter (in an apartment), it will bloom no more than once a year, like amaryllis. And if the conditions of detention for a long time generally "do not allow" the hippeastrum to shed its leaves and go into a dormant state (constant bright lighting, regular watering and feeding), it will be impossible to predict the timing of its flowering at all. Please note: in no case should you cut off the leaves, forcing the hippeastrum in this way to "throw off" them - because of this, the plant will lose a lot of nutrients and most likely will not be able to bloom.
2. Purchased baby hippeastrum with leaves.
Unlike adult bulbs, hippeastrum babies do not need a dormant period before the first flowering. They also need to be planted in small pots of suitable size (7 - 9 cm in diameter), but the bulbs must be completely buried when planting, and then every year in the spring to carry out transshipments in containers of a slightly larger size. If the child has few roots, it is advisable to powder it with root before the procedure, or you can shed the soil with a solution of heteroauxin (zircon). In order for young hippeastrum bulbs to grow "large" faster, you need to keep the plants warm all year round (20 - 22 ° C) with good lighting, regular watering and fertilizing with fertilizer for ornamental plants (start one month after planting). When the bulb reaches 7 cm in diameter, you can begin to stimulate flowering by feeding fertilizers for flowering plants, and after flowering, take care of the hippeastrum according to the algorithm described in the first paragraph.
3. Restoration of weakly / moderately leafy, but not blooming adult hippeastrum for a long time.
With such copies, as a rule, it is more difficult to "negotiate", but it is still possible. First, you need to identify and eliminate the reasons for non-flowering, which may be: too large a pot, lack of lighting and nutrition (the consequence is poor leaf growth), damage to the plant by diseases (rot) and pests (scale insects, spider mites, worms), lack of a dormant period ( with complete withering away of leaves) and other mistakes in care. If hippeastrum has few leaves, you can take a risk - start stimulating its flowering by limiting watering / lighting and connecting appropriate fertilizing or spraying (with drugs Ovary, Bud). But if within a month of keeping at home the plant does not throw out the peduncle, you need to transfer it to regular watering and feeding for active leaf growth. It is desirable that this time coincides with the spring-summer period, which will help provide the hippeastrum with bright lighting. After 2 - 3 months (or closer to the cool autumn), you can "connect the scheme" of preparation for the dormant phase (limitation of watering, shading), and then provide care as for ordinary flowering plants (see item 1).
As a rule, hippeastrum steadfastly tolerate "trials" in the form of diseases and pest infestations and, after appropriate treatment, quickly recover, therefore, it is not necessary to abandon any "unpromising" specimens in advance. The return of the bulb to the "programmed" development cycles over time will return it and the long-awaited flowering. After all, the duration of active growth and flowering of hippeastrum bulbs is at least 10 years, and in adulthood, with good care, they can even reach 40 cm (!) In diameter and, of course, bloom gorgeous. So florists who have hippeastrum at home at any age and condition always have something to strive for.
Flower care during dormancy
The culture has a long dormant period. It lasts 6 months - from November to March. It is necessary to prepare a flower for a dormant period with the arrival of autumn. In this case, it is necessary to gradually reduce the number of waterings. When the last leaf dies off, watering can be stopped.
Sprekelia bulb can be left in a flowerpot. In this case, the container should be moved to a dry and cool place. The temperature regime should be + 16-18 degrees. If desired, the onion can be removed from the pot, transferred to a container with dry peat and transferred to a cool place with a temperature of + 12-13 degrees. In such conditions, the flower can stay until the end of winter.
During the dormant period, the plant requires proper care.
With the onset of spring, the bulb is moved back to the pot.
Important! It is necessary to water the plant at the stage of peduncle formation.
Shprekelia is a beautiful ornamental plant that can be grown at home or planted in open ground. In order for a culture to grow and develop normally, it must be properly cared for. In this case, the plant must be watered and fed in a timely manner. He also needs to provide protection against diseases and parasites.